Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Do 10 on 1 with the newspaper article assigned by my professor Essay

Do 10 on 1 with the newspaper article assigned by my professor - Essay Example Cho's looks and gestures are compelling and are indicative of the abnormality that was breeding in his mind for a long time. Although the same visual inputs result in radically different perceptions, here in Cho's case all the visual inputs from his pictures lead to one terrifying perception - that of a monster lurking behind those piercing eyes. The multi media pictures reveal a consistent and deadly pattern of a man suffering from paranoia. Ours is an age of tremendous growth of knowledge and of rapid social change. More scientific and technological advances have been made in past fifty years than in all previous recorded time. Whereas the United States and the developed world have progressed by leaps and bounds, the family values and the concept of integrated families have vanished. This has given rise to enormous tensions among families and has broken the cohesive thread that ran through families in earlier times and sustained broken units within themselves through the balm of social security and family love. Despite this tension and stress of modern life in the United States, most people still manage to "muddle through," worrying along and solving their problems after a fashion. But for a large number of people the stress proves too much. It is startling to note that the emotional disturbances incapacitate more people t han all other health problems combined. Cho Seung Hui is revealed as an emotional wreck through these pictures. The rigidly stiff stance that he projects through these videos and pictures are indicative of his troubled personality and "sitting on edge" perception of life. What do these pictures reveal They clearly reveal the abnormal behavior at its extreme. These pictures also reveal that any effective personality adjustment would have been extremely difficult in Cho's case. The careful analyses of these pictures reveal aggression and anger in Cho that has been welling up inside him for a long time. The picture in which Cho is seen as holding a hammer depicts merciless behavior where the subject is willing to kill an ant with a hammer. This is a classic case of paranoia. There are clues of this kind of behavior in Cho's play titled "Richard McBeef"1. This play is basically a vent that Cho has given to his grudge against his step-father whom he calls "lazy, fat, demonic, uncultivated piece of shit and many other derogatory superlatives" because he feels that Richard, his step-father, has not been treating his Mom with respect and that he, on occasions, had also been hitting her. After the shooting spree and subsequent suicide by Cho was over, a class mate of Cho's McFarlane stated that, "When I first heard about the multiple shootings at Virginia Tech yesterday, my first thought was about my friends, and my second thought was "I bet it was Seung Cho".2 Thus we clearly deduce from these pictures a menacing pattern of a man overcome by paranoid feelings that the entire world is conspiring against him and out to get him. Also, the pictures reveal Cho as remaining on guard always top pay back to the rest of the world. School is the best place for a young man to learn his spurs, good or bad. Cho had been watching other kids, hearing their stories of their parents and friends and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Lord of the Flies Essay Example for Free

Lord of the Flies Essay I am running for your class vice president. As many of you know, our sophomore class as of right now does not have much funding for our 2016 senior prom. When this student council is elected, you want to have the correct people for the jobs that hold your future of fun. The memorable time of high school. Let me tell you why I am qualified for your class vice presidency. In middle school, I was chosen to be in a 12 person leadership class. There I learned very useful and important information as to being a good leader. Some of those leadership skills included working together to succeed greatness. As your vice president I will strive for this government to be totally student ran where your voice will be very much welcomed, listened to, and taken into much consideration. I care about your input. It is not only my senior prom, it is yours. There is no ‘I’ in team, but there is an ‘E’ as in ‘we’. Together WE will make this our time. I am very organized and on top of everything I have on my plate. I will work very hard and dedicate myself with the rest of the student council to get what you want and to make it succeed. Team building and working together is something I have a lot of experience with. Since last year, I have been on my church’s youth council where about 15 people come together to plan all the youth events. That has taught me what things work and what things do not work when planning events. We have to work in a democracy and hear everyone out before officially deciding on which path to take to our future. With this in mind, I guarantee you that your senior prom will go down in history as the most fun and zealous one yet. Everyone will be involved while planning and you will be extremely notified when decisions are to be made. But to do that, there needs to be aggressive, but enjoyable fundraising. Fundraising is at the top of the list our class has to do to make our senior prom count. Some ideas for great events to be held are car washes, concession stands held at Patriot athletic activities, selling class shirts, class raffles, bake sales, 5ks, holding talent shows with admission going towards our goal, and having our lovely administrators getting involved and a little dirty with â€Å"Choose a ‘Torture. ’† There are so many ideas that can be carried out to make sure we have the funding we need. I am asking you to bring your picture student ID on Friday and to please elect me your class vice president so these ideas will be put to action. Some of you might be asking, â€Å"Who is this girl? † I play for your Lake Brantley Girls’ Basketball team and I currently run for your Girl’s Cross Country team as well. You can get to know me on twitter @lizzettealvarez. Mention me or simply DM me on twitter to learn more about me. Come up to me and introduce yourself and give me ideas as to what can be done to make our class activities and fundraising more improved. And as I close, I just want to thank all of you for listening and taking me into great consideration to becoming your class vice president. I am 100% dedicated to making your senior year unforgettable. I have a dream that one day in the year 2016 our prom night will be spectacular. That on that magical night, everyone will be content with what will be going down. Turning up, fun, and un-mundane memories being made. I have a dream that this sophomore class right here and right now can impact our community in a spectacular and rare way so that nobody will forget us. I have a dream that we will live on as legends as the best class to ever be at Lake Brantley. But only you can make that dream come to reality. YOU have to bring your student photo ID to the cafeteria and vote on Friday September 6 for me to be your class vice president to make the dreams come true. Just remember to vote for the proper people that will get the job beautifully, simply, and flawlessly done. Thank you

Saturday, October 26, 2019

What Are Poor Listening Skills :: essays research papers

Speech Communication Listening Paper   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What are Poor Listening Skills?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As a freshman in college it is extremely overwhelming. You have to maintain good grades and a healthy social life- grade come first of course. However, it can become difficult to learn the material because many kids develop a decrease in attention span. That’s where listening skills have to be established. I find myself losing focus in some of my classes. It was good to know that I wasn’t the only one.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One class in which I have observed poor listening skills is psychology. I’ve noticed the same thing a couple of times actually. The class consists of about forty students, of which a little more than half show up. The ones who do show up walk in half awake. They all seem tired and they carry a big cup of coffee. You have the few who pretend to care or at least make themselves care by sitting in the front row of class because they know they can’t fall asleep there. And finally the ones who take the seats behind the tall kids and all the way in the back of the classroom.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Well one day while practicing my daily routine of not paying attention I noticed various listening barriers. For one, I know that many students have no interest in psychology. Especially with the fact that right now we’re learning about the biology of psychology. Basically, it is pretty flat material that isn’t something that might interest kids at 9:30 in the morning. Another barrier is the fact that the speaker is susceptible to criticism because of the way she delivers her lessons. She has a monotonous tone of voice that makes her seem jaded to teaching her class. We also lose interest of what she is saying because he follows the textbook practically verbatim. She doesn’t add any â€Å"spice† to the lesson.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another type of barrier is that some kids fake attention. They seem to be taking notes and I’m pretty sure they actually think they’re paying attention and taking notes. But I’ve noticed their papers and see a collection of doodles. Basically they have adapted themselves to â€Å"listening† while they actually aren’t.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This is the most common of the barriers that I have noticed. Many kids try to avoid losing focus by sitting at the front of the class.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

My High School Experience Essay

When people start high school they’re usually so excited. They can’t wait to experience everything that comes with being in high school, I mean who wouldn’t? Everyone says that high school is the best four years of your life. Now that I’m months away from graduating, I can’t say they were my best years but I can say they were my most educational years, of course I wouldn’t say that they weren’t fun because they were. When I say educational, I mean I’ve learned so much about myself and so much about life. I learned what the words family, love, betrayal, law and life meant. All these events changed me, and I’m glad they happened because I wouldn’t have learned all these lessons. My personality hasn’t changed; I’m still a carefree girl, just with a little more wisdom and a lot more strength. I started off school with a horrible attitude because my parents sent me to a different school. They sent me to a school where I knew about two people, I was so angry at my parents that I decided to rebel until they would transfer me to Eastlake. When I went back to Eastlake everything was good again, I made new friends and I even had a boyfriend. My priorities were never really about school or getting good grades, it was always about my friends and my boyfriend. I would ditch on a daily basis just to spend more time with them even if we didn’t really do anything exciting, just as long as I didn’t have to be bored in a classroom. My ditching got so bad it got to the point where my teachers didn’t even know my name, or they thought I transferred out of their class. As a result to all this ditching, I had horrible grades and I was way behind on my credits. I regret ditching because I ruined my chances of going to a university; instead I’m going to a community college. I realize now that I ditched for no reason at all, it was a waste of my time. I look back and think that ditching is just so ridiculous, there really is no point to it unless you want to ruin your future. Remember how I said I learned what the words family, love and betrayal meant? Well, in my situation they sort of all happened together. My freshmen and sophomore year, I had my first real boyfriend. I was completely and totally in love with this guy, he changed me in ways that I’m proud of and ways that I’m not proud of. I revolved my world around him, which wasn’t a good idea. After almost two years of dating, we broke up and it literally shattered my world. During our relationship I became friends with his friends and I even considered one of them my best friends, so when we broke up I didn’t only loose him, I lost all of them as well. It felt so awful to all of a sudden have everything, and then just lose everything in a day. A couple of weeks later, I found out that my best friend was actually dating my ex boyfriend. I couldn’t believe that a person could betray someone like that, especially after everything that she and I went through together. I’m not proud of the events that happened after all of this, and I’m not proud of how I let them change me. The one thing that saved me was my family; they saved me in ways I can’t even explain. They gave me hope and a new life for me that I am extremely grateful for. I’ve learned to be wiser when it comes to picking friends, and choosing who to put my trust in. I also became a stronger person, I don’t let people walk all over me or I don’t let people control my life anymore. The last event is the one that taught me the most about how hard life is, and how life isn’t always fair. My junior year was spent in Tijuana, I would go every weekend to hang out with my cousins and now I have a good life over there. I was never considered a bad kid or a bad influence to other people but everyone goes off course at some point in their life, well mine was spending the night in jail. I could honestly say that I didn’t do anything to deserve being there, except just being at the wrong place with the wrong people. It was really tough to see the disappointment in my parents faces when they saw me in there, it’s probably the worst place for your parents to see you in. I felt helpless because even though I committed no crime, I was still treated as if I did and it was just an awful experience to go through. After I got out, I decided to leave all those friends behind because they didn’t do me any good except get me in trouble. I learned the hard way that people can bring you down, even if you don’t expect it. Throughout my four years of high school I learned to not follow the crowd, even if it may seem extremely cool at the time. I do regret the things I did, but in a way I’m glad for the lessons I could take from them. All of these events made me a stronger person, and I’ve learned what right and wrong is. My parents and I had a rocky four years, I put them through so much disappointment and stress but in the end, I finally became the good daughter. I don’t disrespect them anymore, I care about school, and I’m glad to say that I haven’t disappointed them in a very long time. I think it’s amazing how much a person can grow and transform into something they never thought they would be. I’m looking forward to graduating and proving all the people that looked down on me wrong, it’s going to be an amazing feeling. These four years are only the beginning, they couldn’t have been my best years because my life is not even close to being over, I’m going to learn so many more things and have even better memories.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

My Chemical Romance.

My Chemical Romance. Gerard, Mikey and Frank all had drug problems. Mikey and Gerard, on top of that had alcohol problems. They got themselves better. They knew no one else could help them. What encouraged them to get better? Themselves, and the music. Ray had the absolutely awful job of having to watch them go through all of this, on top of him trying to be the perfect guitarist. Frank would do drugs over the weekend, and wake up on Monday not knowing anything that had happened. Mikey felt depressed alongside Gerard, and before shows they would heavily drink together to try and relieve the stress. I'm gonna get better. † – Gerard Way. Gerard had attempted suicide, which is not the place anyone wants to be. He called up his manager, Brian, and told him. Came out to him about everything, the drinking; the drugs; and how he has a problem. Brian had to talk him out of suicide while on the complete other side of the world to Gerard, until Gerard woke up the tour manager and they spoke together, until Gerard passed out. Ray was probably first to let Gerard know he had a bad, bad problem. Ray told him he needed help, and within 17 days of Gerard understanding that, he got sober again.The band had saved his life. The band had saved Frank Iero's life. Frank LIVES for the music, and nothing else. It's the music that keeps him alive. Mikey hit depression during The Black Parade, and had to leave the band for a while, so he could get better, and play the music once again with 3 of his best friends. The band inspired Mikey to get better. The band saved his life. Ray seriously went through so much, and he would still be either trying to make music in small, unknown bands to make himself happy. But he has My Chemical Romance. God only knows the path Ray might have taken if Gerard idn't call him up to be in the band. The band saved Rays life. My Chemical Romance are my idols because they're such caring, and inspirational men. They care about the music, each other , and safety of their fans. Do you think they'd have gotten themselves better if they were just in it for the money? If none of the music ment anything to any of them, but they just wanted money, like some bands today? No, they wouldn't. They'd have carried on drinking and doing drugs until they would take an even more serious and critical condition, and probably die. Thank you My Chemical Romance for being my idols and inspiring me.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Ferdinhand Magellan essays

Ferdinhand Magellan essays Magellan was the most adventurous explorer of the 16th century. He was born in the spring of 1480 to a lower Nobel Portuguese family. He proved himself in many battles and expeditions for his country. But in 1517 he renounced his Portuguese citizenship after King Emanuel refused his request for a fleet to prove the Spice Islands could be reached by sailing west. Magellan left for Spain to seek support for his plan. King Charles I desperately needed a westward route to the Spice Islands in order to share in the profitable spice trade. The Portuguese controlled all the other trade routes around Africas Cape of Good Hope and Spanish ships were not allowed to pass through. He eagerly approved Magellans plan and funded the expedition. In September of 1519 Magellan set sail with five ships and a crew of 270 men to find a route around or through South America. There are a lot of reasons I believe this expedition is the greatest adventure of the 1500s. For one, nobody knew if a passage existed or how far it was across South America. The maps they had to use were very crude and far from accurate. Magellan was also taking a big risk by commanding a Spanish crew, remember he is Portuguese born and the relationship between these countries is not good. If they did find a passage though South America they still had to find the Spice Islands and they would be in uncharted waters. The weather, winds, and currents were all unknowns to them at the time. Magellans expedition did discover a passage through South America to the Pacific Ocean. It is what we now call The Strait of Magellan located at the Southern tip of South America. But the voyage didnt go as planned and a heavy price was paid for their discoveries. The trip took nearly three years to complete. Four of the five ships were lost. All but 18 of the crew of 270 died from starvation, disease, and warring with hostile natives. Magellan died in a battle in the P...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Of Mice And Men

Story Map Fiction Title: Of Mice and Men Author: John Steinback Setting: 1.Characters: Lennie, George, Candy, Slim, The Boss, Curley, Curley's Wife, Carlson, Whit, and Crooks. 2.Place: Salinas Valley, California 3.Time: 1937, Depression Era Plot: 1.Problem: George and Lennie are Laborers in California's vegetable fields. They try to get work anywhere they can. George and Lennie are not just any California Laborers. For they have a plan: to own an acre of land and have a shack to call their own. When they acquire a job on a ranch in Salinas Valley their dream seems to be within their grasp. But George cannot guard Lennie from the provocation of a flirtatious woman neither predict the consequences of Lennie's unswerving obedience to the things he learns from George. 2.Major Events: 1. This novel takes place in the California valley along the Salinas River. There are two settings: the banks of the Salinas River and a nearby ranch. George Milton, small and smart, and his friend Lennie Small, a large man with mild retardation, are on their way to jobs at a ranch. When they stop by the Salinas River to take a break from their long walk. 2. Lennie cannot remember where they are going, and George, annoyed, reminds him about their jobs. Lennie looks in his pocket for his work card and finds a dead mouse, which he found by the side of the road. Lennie likes to pet soft animals, like mice and puppies, but he is very strong and often kills his delicate pets. George reminds Lennie that he has his work card and demands Lennie to give it to him. Lennie tries to hide his mouse from George, who eventually gets it from him and throws it across the river. That evening, Lennie goes to find his mouse, which makes George very angry. He argues with Lennie, but soon feels bad and tries to console him. George tells Lennie how one day soon they will own a farm of thei... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Response to Text I found Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, a difficult book to read. The language was very detailed and the speech was lazy as they left out letters, â€Å"You can’t keep a job and you lose me ever’ job I get. Jus’ keep me shovin’ all over the country all the time. An’ that ain’t the worst.† However, by the end of the book I understood the language used and I actually read the book again and picked up a lot of things I first missed. I was curious about the origins of the title and discovered it was from a line in a Scottish poem- â€Å"The best laid schemes o’ mice an ‘men Gong aft agley [often go wrong] And leave us nought but Grief and Pain For promised joy.† I think this means that no matter how well we plan something, sometimes those plans will be just dreams and never become reality, or worse, they could go terribly wrong. I think this is used in the story referring to George and Lennie’s dream of owning a farm. This dream made George and Lennie’s friendship stronger but I think deep down George knew it was only a dream that would never eventuate. â€Å"-I think I knowed from the very first. I think I knowed we’d never do her. He usta like to hear about it so much I got thinking maybe we would.† Lennie on the other hand, became so obsessed with the idea that it controlled him and became the only thing he thought of. Lennie might not have been smart, but he was sensitive, strong and had a huge heart. Although Lennie often annoys George with the mind of a child trapped in the body of a man, George does love Lennie and would do nearly anything for him. That is why at time he is so over protective of him. Steinbeck uses different devices in his writing that became clearer to me the second time I read the book. He uses foreshadowing to introduce the reader to ideas of incidents that become a main part of the story. At the start of the text, Lennie and George talk about mice and how ... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Choose a novel which portrays a close relationship between two characters. Show how this relationship develops and adds to your enjoyment of the novel. The book Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck is set in California during the time of the depression. The book is about two men who keep on getting chased out of villages when they just want some money to buy a house of their own. The novel mentions a lot about the two men’s close friendship by showing that they travel everywhere with each other and can’t travel by themselves. Our first impressions of George and Lennie are that George is a kind of parent figure to Lennie and is always looking after Lennie because Lennie is always getting into trouble and acts like a child even though he is an adult. George is a friend of Lennie but has to be like a father because Lennie is unable to look after himself. George is very independent on himself and doesn’t really need Lennie by his side who is just slowing him down. Lennie is very big and slow and can’t really fend for himself and always need George to look after him. Lennie acts very childlike and always wants to put soft things like the dead mouse George finds in his jacket pocket. Most of the animals that Lennie pats end up dead because he doesn’t know his own strength because he thinks he’s as strong as a child but is actually as strong as a full grown adult. They both play a part in their strong friendship and as you can see this by seeing that George can’t leave Lennie and Lennie is always very innocent and can’t fend for himself. One of the reasons that they have to travel with each other all the time is that George told Lennie’s family that he would look after Lennie for them. The book does make you laugh slightly when you hear about how slow and child like Lennie is. A quote from the book that shows that Lennie is very childlike is â€Å"How I get to tend the rabbits† He says this all the way though as if it’s t... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Steinbach wrote his novel Of Mice and Men then changed the genre of his book to a drama. He does this to convey a different to his audience. In the novel, the ending is more promising. It leaves George walking away with Slim, discussing their plans to go have a drink. It seems as if George moves on and accepts what he has done to Lennie. George seems to become friends with Slim, and the ending of this novel walks off with him. It leaves the reader thinking that George may go on working at the ranch and may even live the dream that Lennie and him had shared. He may go on to share that dream with Candy or Slim or he may stay with Slim on the ranch for the rest of his life. The novel makes it clear that George will move on. In the performance of this novel, Steinbach changes the end to a drama type ending. The last scene leaves George alone in a boxcar with only the memories of him and Lennie. He sees the friendship and loving relationship he has destroyed. He sits alone only with himse lf to blame for what has happened. The boxcar that he sits in is dark and plan and I believe that in a symbolism of what George feels inside with out Lennie. Steinbach changes his ending in his novel and play to show a more dramatic side, that everyone has been in that boxcar of darkness. Megan Lambert The article â€Å"Making Things Whole† helps relate the characters George and Lennie to a realistic situation. In the article a young man named Phil has a mental disability like Lennie, but both of them are very strong physically. Phil’s boss has multiple sclerosis and is unable to do anything physically but is very intelligent, George is like him in the fact that he is very smart and is weaker than his partner is. But together both pairs make a whole person. Lennie and Phil are the physical part of the pair and Phil’s boss and George are the brainpower. In both situations a partner has left, Lennie was killed and Phil was being promoted. In both situations... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Themes 1. Several characters in the novel dream of a permanent home and a better life. Describe George and Lennie's dream. (17-19,14-16) Lennie and George are different to other ranch workers because, according to George, they have a future and each other. They dream of having a parch of land - a small farm with animals which would keep them independent. One day they will save enough money to have their own little farm "an' live off the fatta the lan† and not have to take orders from anyone and reap their own harvest. When they get their own land George is going to get some rabbits for Lennie to raise. 2. In a long paragraph explain why George and Lennie travel around together. Explain other people's reactions to them. See Slim’s comments (38,41) and Crooks' attitude, George does not want to go around on the ranches alone because people who travel alone "Don't have any fun†¦ After a long time they get mean.† Despite the nuisance that Lennie can be, George admits, "You get used to goin' around with a guy an' you can't get rid of him." Other people don’t really like the fact that the two travel around together. Slim thinks its â€Å"unusual† for two grown men to be traveling around together and Curley even hints that they might be homosexual. 3. Describe Crooks' position on the ranch, his personality and his bunkroom. Describe his appearance and how he feels about people. What is it like for him being a cripple? Use quotes.(61-65,69-71) Crooks is a black stablehand whose nickname is derived from the crooked back he has suffered from since he was kicked in the back by a horse. He is described by Candy as a nice person. Crooks is the victim of racial prejudice and the main recipient of unequal treatment in the novel. Crooks has more possessions than the others do on the ranch because a stablehand’s job is more permanent. Crooks has got a bit of a attitude problem at first towards Lennie because when Lennie was sta... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Of Mice and Men â€Å" The best laid plans of mice and men usually go astray.† this poem refers to the conditions under which George and lennie live. The book Of mice and men are about to Protagonists ( George Milton, Lennie Small.) that get their dreams become deferred. Cause of a miss understanding that a flirtatious woman cause George, Lennie and candy their dream â€Å" to live off the fat of the land.† A Friendship between lennie Small and George Milton was like any other friendship George always put lennie before him self. As told in Dave Thomas Story â€Å" What Makes for Success.† George did every thing that Dave Thomas preaches in he’s story. George was caring and understanding and put lennie before himself. â€Å" We have a dream. Someday we’ll have a little house and a couple of acre. A place to call home. † George would always tell Lennie about how if he was a good fellow he get to tend to the rabbits. When Lennie and George went to their new job ( a other ranch). George said to their new boss â€Å"Oh! I ain’t saying he’s bright. He ain’t. but I say he’s a God damn good worker.† Naturalism between this two characters in the book of mice and men. Lennie is limited cause of he’s heredity, and circumstances of he mental disability. For that it cost of their â€Å" American Dream.† When Lennie said to George â€Å" I don’t like this place I don’t like this place at all. â€Å" George and Lennie have a dream. â€Å" Someday we’re gonna get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs.† Being lowly ranch hands, they dream of a better life, where they don’t work for anyone but themselves. George, the much smarter one of the two, is quite optimistic about it. It seems that he already talked with someone about buying his or her. Lennie , the mentally retarded brute, is childly amused of the dream. He loves soft things, and touching them; and when George ... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men I. Of Mice and Men II. Author: John Steinback III. Published by: Covici-Friede in 1937 Registered in Library of Congress 1902-1968 1962 Nobel prize Winner 105 pages V. The novel Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, is about two men who are brought together and share a few good times, such as each other’s company, and the more overwhelmingly the bad times. Both men fight the loneliness that was ramped during the Depression. John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California, in 1902. He was raised in a fertile agricultural valley about twenty miles from the Pacific Coast. Both the valley and the coast would become the setting for some of his novels and short stories. In 1919 he attended Stanford University, where he took literature and writing classes. In 1925 he left the university. He did not attain a degree before his departure. For the next five years of Steinbeck’s life, he worked as a laborer and a journalist in New York City. Then he worked as a caretaker for an estate in Lake Tahoe. During these five years, he was also working on his first novel, Cup of Gold. He then got married and moved to Pacific Groove where he published his next two books, The Pastures of Heaven and To a God Unknown. He also worked on some of his famous short stories. He gained success and financial security with his book Tortilla Flat. This was full of stories about Monterey’s paisanos. In 1952, he published East of Eden, a story about the Salinas valley and Steinbeck’s own family history. The last decades of his life were spent in New York City and Sag Harbor with his third wife. Throughout Steinbeck’s life he published twenty-five books. After his death in 1968, four more of his books were published. Six years before his death, John Steinbeck won a Noble Prize. Of Mice and Men the book Of Mice and Men is about the trials and tribulations of friendship. Throughout the book, George is continuously telling Lennie th... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Act One, Scene 1: a clearing in the woods. George and Lennie are running from the police, and arrive in the clearing to hide. George vents his frustration at Lennie always getting the two of them in trouble, and George having to get them out (Trouble, always trouble: that's all you're good for.). This time, Lennie had been fascinated in a childlike way by the fabric of a woman's dress, but she'd interpreted his petting it as a rape attempt, and when she screamed Lennie had panicked and gripped tighter. George gripes about how much better his life would be without Lennie (My life would be so simple by myself). But he doesn't really mean it, any more than Lennie means his offer to leave (Just give me the word and I'll strike out alone). This seems to be their ritual. Lennie has a mouse in his pocket; he had accidentally killed it by stroking it too hard. George, angry, throws it away, and Lennie laments (It was something I could stroke). George cheers him up by reciting their long-standing dream: to get a farm of their own, and live in security (One day soon, we'll save up enough). They lie down to sleep, haunted by the sound of police sirens in the distance. Act One, Scene 2: the bunkhouse. Curley, the ranch boss, and Candy, and old crippled ranch-hand, are in the bunkhouse. Curley is cursing George and Lennie for arriving late (They said they'd be here this mornin', damn good-for-nothin' ranch-hands!). Curley's wife, young, bored, and frustrated, comes in to plead for attention and a night out (with Curley) (I want to go into town tonight). Curley throws her out churlishly, and she responds with equal churl. Both storm out. In come George and Lennie, reporting for work. Candy sends them to their bunks, as the ranch hands return from the fields (Oh, I met her in Frisco in the month of July). Slim, the most respected of the hands, offers his dog's new litter of puppies to the men. Lennie, with childlike glee, asks George if he... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Of Mice and Men, a novel written by John Steinbeck, portrays that physical strength is not a positive attribute. Set in the countryside around Soledad, George and Lennie escape their previous workplace because of the trouble that Lennie causes. Lennie is mentally retarded and suffers from a child’s mentality within a giant’s body. He is innocent and forgetful like a child, and as a result is highly dependent on George. Prior to reaching their new ranch, Lennie continually searches for a mouse, which he can care for and keep as a pet. When he finds a mouse, he tries to stroke it gently, and unintentionally kills it. Furthermore, when Lennie hears about the new puppies on the ranch, he immediately gets one to pet and accidentally kills it as well. The novel reaches a turning point as Lennie is entrapped by Curley’s flirtatious wife, whom he kills as a result of his unrealized strength. As a huge person with the mentality of a child Lennie does not realize his own s trength, because accidentally hurts the things he loves. Steinbeck conveys that in society physical strength is not an important part of life and is viewed as something negative and destructive. Originally, George and Lennie approach Soledad in search of a new job, because Lennie touches the dress of a young girl and is wrongly accused of attempted rape. George is a short man, with a thin body and sharp features. On the other hand, Lennie is a big man who is innocent, unthinking and immature. Lennie’s mental retardation causes George to lead and protect him through the countryside and ranch. Lennie constantly forgets things that he is told or has experienced. Even though he tries and tries to remember, he cannot even remember having to escape from the last town because of trouble. Lennie's gigantic body can do the work of two or three men, but his spirit is still and gentle. Like a child, he is fond of petting soft things, like a mouse or rabbit. Lennie finds a mouse al... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Of Mice and Men was made during the depression. People are looking for jobs everywhere. Dreams helped them turn away from being depressed, which is shown by George, Lennie, Curly’s wife, Candy, and Crooks. They all wanted to achieve something that they longed for. There are many things and people that get in the way of achieving their dream. Both Lennie and George had a dream. Not many Americans owned land at this time. Lennie and George want to have their own piece of land, with a small house, small farm with rabbits, chickens, and cows. â€Å"O.K. Someday- we’re gonna get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs.’†(14) George likes this dream because he will have freedom to do anything, and control his own life. Lennie only likes the dream because he will be able to tend his own rabbits, and pet them as much as he wants to. Lennie and George’s dream never seemed like it was going to happen. They think that if they will work enough then they will have enough money to buy some land. Once they have their own land they wont have to worry about having a job. George always told Lennie about the dream because it made Lennie happy. All he talks about is tending the rabbits. Lennie tries not to dissapoint George bec ause George will warn him that he won’t be able to tend the rabbits. â€Å"An’ he’ll say ‘Now jus’ for that you don’t get to tend no rabbits!’†(85). He loves things that are soft. So every time that he touches something soft he thinks that he is closer to his dream. That is his major problem. Every time he touches something soft something goes wrong. He doesn’t realize his own strength. Their dream ends because of Lennie, he killed Curly’s wife on accident because he wanted to feel her hair. Candy also wanted a dream, because when he overheard George telling Lennie their dream, he now wants to take part in the dream. ï ¿ ½... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men Story Map Fiction Title: Of Mice and Men Author: John Steinback Setting: 1.Characters: Lennie, George, Candy, Slim, The Boss, Curley, Curley's Wife, Carlson, Whit, and Crooks. 2.Place: Salinas Valley, California 3.Time: 1937, Depression Era Plot: 1.Problem: George and Lennie are Laborers in California's vegetable fields. They try to get work anywhere they can. George and Lennie are not just any California Laborers. For they have a plan: to own an acre of land and have a shack to call their own. When they acquire a job on a ranch in Salinas Valley their dream seems to be within their grasp. But George cannot guard Lennie from the provocation of a flirtatious woman neither predict the consequences of Lennie's unswerving obedience to the things he learns from George. 2.Major Events: 1. This novel takes place in the California valley along the Salinas River. There are two settings: the banks of the Salinas River and a nearby ranch. George Milton, small and smart, and his friend Lennie Small, a large man with mild retardation, are on their way to jobs at a ranch. When they stop by the Salinas River to take a break from their long walk. 2. Lennie cannot remember where they are going, and George, annoyed, reminds him about their jobs. Lennie looks in his pocket for his work card and finds a dead mouse, which he found by the side of the road. Lennie likes to pet soft animals, like mice and puppies, but he is very strong and often kills his delicate pets. George reminds Lennie that he has his work card and demands Lennie to give it to him. Lennie tries to hide his mouse from George, who eventually gets it from him and throws it across the river. That evening, Lennie goes to find his mouse, which makes George very angry. He argues with Lennie, but soon feels bad and tries to console him. George tells Lennie how one day soon they will own a farm of thei... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men In the early chapters of the novel Of Mice and Men written by John Steinbeck, there are many examples of foreshadowing. Upon the ending of the book, the examples of foreshadowing show why the â€Å"American Dream† was not fulfilled by the main characters Lennie and George. In the first chapter, Lennie and George are traveling from the weed to the ranch in which they will be working. An example of foreshadowing starts out from why they were leaving the weed. Lennie, a man of great strength, is quite slow and is unaware of what he is doing. George later explains â€Å"Well, he seen this girl in a red dress. Dumb bastard like he is, he wants to touch ever’thing he likes. Just wants to feel it. So he reaches out to feel this red dress an’ the girls lets out a squawk, and that gets Lennie all mixed up, and he hold on ‘cause that’s the only thing he can think to do...so I comes running, an’ by that time Lennie’s so scared all he can think to do is jus’ hold on...He was so scairt he couldn’t let go of that dress. And he’s so God damn strong, you know† (pg. 41). The incident in the weed shows that Lennie causes a lot of trouble because he is not aware of how strong he is and the damage he can and later will do. Lennie is not a mischievous man. Although he is large, deep down he is a simple, clumsy man. He is mentally slow and possesses child-like qualities. He is very forgetful and imitates George because he looks up to him. Another example of foreshadowing is how Lennie is infatuated with petting soft things. He used to have a mouse but from petting it for so long and hard, he would kill them by breaking their necks, only to become quite angry with it. â€Å"They was so little,† he said apologetically. â€Å"I’d pet ‘em, and pretty soon they bit my fingers and I pinched their heads a little and then they were dead- because they was so little.† (Pg. 10). This foreshadowing shows that Le... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men John Steinbeck’s novel, Of Mice and Men, is a tragic and endearing story of the unconditional friendship between two virtually opposite men. The two main characters, Lennie Small and George Milton, are just a couple of hard working ranch hands trying to â€Å"make their stake† and achieve their dream of having a farm of their very own. Set in the early 20th century during the Great Depression, our protagonists are looked upon as an odd pair, not just because of their character differences, but because it is rare for anyone in their line of work to be traveling with a companion. The two men also encounter conflicts which are foreshadowed by the dialogue between them early on in the story. The characterization, setting and dialogue all effectively contribute to the meaningfulness of the novel, making it a heartwarming story with a tragic twist of an ending. Steinbeck’s use of characterization presents his audience with the unique friendship between two exact opposites. Lennie is a slow-witted brute of a man who, in the words of George, â€Å"isn’t too bright but a hell of a good worker†. Lennie’s counterpart, George, is small and wiry, but with enough common sense for the both of them. Steinbeck characterizes the two friends by a classic relationship of child and adult. Lennie possesses many childlike qualities because of his mental retardation, which is his most obvious characteristic. since he is a grown man with the mind of a child. Slim is one of the first characters to notice his mental immaturity, remarking that Lennie is â€Å"jes like a kid†. Curley’s wife also comments on how he is â€Å"jus’ like a big baby†. George has taken on the role of Lennie’s main caregiver since Lennie’s Aunt Clara died. George and Lennie have no one else in the world but themselves, and look to each other for guidance and protection. â€Å"Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men â€Å"Of Mice and Men† has a very disturbing ending. In the end, George is forced to kill his best friend, Lennie. George is affected by this in many ways. The fact that George killed Lennie may have freed George from caring for him but he now faces a new type of entrapment. There is also a great significance about how Steinbeck ends the novel. Steinbeck’s conclusion is very cynical. Lennie’s death may have been necessary but it greatly affected George. Killing Lennie meant George no longer had a social and humanitarian responsibility of protecting him. By George accepting responsibility for Lennie, it had given him a sense of purpose. Now that Lennie is dead, George has no purpose, he will be just another ordinary ranch hand. George also had to lie about Lennie’s death, saying that Lennie had a gun as was going to shoot him. The most logical reason for George lying is because George is a survivor. If George admitted that he had stole Carlson’s luger, he would be known as a thief around the ranch from now on, and if he admitted that he shot Lennie some would call him a murderer. George continues to go on living with his own feelings. He probably didn’t feel guilty about killing Lennie. Instead, he just feel empty. George feels that he has failed Lennie, and loves him. Killing Lennie is purely an act of love and mercy, with no anger or revenge. George probably felt like a part of him was missing too, because he and Lennie had a symbiotic relationship. This means that they needed each other to survive. George did Lennie’s thinking for him and tried to keep him out of trouble. But there is a question about why George needed Lennie. Lennie was more than just George’s companion who kept him from being lonely. Lennie made George special. George was, â€Å"God damn smart alongside of him...† George needed Lennie or he would be just like the other guys on the ranch. George and Lennie are like a two-sided person. George explains to... Free Essays on Of Mice And Men In â€Å"Of Mice and Men† John Steinbeck uses animal imagery to describe Lennie and links the death of Lennie to the killing of Candy’s dog. Candy has a dog that is very old, smells bad, and is useless. George has Lennie and he is very strong, but very slow mentally and always gets George into trouble. Candy is unable to kill his dog, which he later regrets, but George knows he must kill Lennie. Steinbeck uses animal imagery to describe Lennie in the book â€Å"Of Mice and Men.† Many times Steinbeck refers to Lennie’s hands as paws. In the beginning of the story Steinbeck says, â€Å"Lennie dabbed his big paw in the water,† and he also says on the same page, â€Å"Snorting into the water like a horse,† comparing Lennie to a horse. When handing over the mouse to George, he refers to Lennie as a dog by saying, â€Å"Slowly like a terrier, Lennie approached, drew back, and approached again.† During the fight with Lennie and Curley, he refers to Lennie as a sheep by saying, â€Å"He bleated with terror.† Steinbeck refers to both Lennie and George as beavers by saying, â€Å"They are pounding their tails.† The deaths of Lennie and Candy’s dog have many similarities. They are both killed by Carlson’s gun and are shot right in the back of the head where they wouldn’t feel a thing. They are also killed fo r the following reason, Candy’s dog was killed to stop its suffering and George killed Lennie so, he wouldn’t have to die in a suffering manner. Candy also regretted that he didn’t kill his dog, but George felt responsible to kill Lennie himself. The many different animal images of Lennie help make the story and describe him. The death of Candy’s dog is an important event in the story and helps foreshadow the end of the book. The animal imagery and death of Candy’s dog are parallel later in the book when Lennie was killed....

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Definition and Examples of Terms of Address

Definition and Examples of Terms of Address A term of address is a word, phrase, name, or title (or some combination of these) used to address someone in writing or while speaking. Terms of address are also known as address terms or forms of address. Nicknames, pronouns, pejoratives, and terms of endearment all qualify. Key Takeaways: Terms of Address A term of address is any word, phrase, name, or title used to address another person.Terms of address may be formal (Doctor, The Honorable, His Excellence) or informal (honey, dear, you). Formal terms of address are often used to recognize academic or professional accomplishments, while informal terms of address are often used to show affection. A term of address may be friendly (dude, sweetheart), unfriendly (You idiot!), neutral (Jerry, Marge), respectful (Your honor), disrespectful (buddy, said with sarcasm), or comradely (My friends). Although a term of address commonly appears at the beginning of a sentence, as in Doctor, Im not convinced that this treatment is working, it may also be used between phrases or clauses. For example: Im not convinced, doctor, that this treatment is working. Related terms include  direct address,  vocative, and  honorific. Direct address is just what it sounds like. The speaker is talking directly to the person mentioned, as in the above conversation with the doctor. A vocative is the term of address used, such as the word doctor in the previous example. An honorific is a term used to show respect and comes before a name, such as Mr., Ms., the Reverend, the Honorable, and the like, as in, Mr. Smith, Ms. Jones, the Reverend Christian, and the judge, the Honorable J.C. Johnson. In formal contexts, terms of address may sometimes be used to indicate that a person has more power or authority than another. In those cases, terms of address can be used to show respect for or submission to another. Formal Terms of Address Formal terms of address are typically used in professional contexts such as academia, government, medicine, religion, and the military. In the United States, common examples include: Professor: Used to address a member of a school or universitys faculty.His/Her Excellency: Used to address the ambassadors of foreign governments.The Honorable: Used to address American ambassadors along with U.S. judges and justices.His/Her Royal Highness: Used to address members of a royal family, including British princes and princesses.Doctor: Used to address a physician who has obtained a medical degree or someone with a Ph.D.Captain: Used to address U.S. naval commanders regardless of rank; any officer who has been placed in charge of a vessel may be addressed this way.His Holiness: Used to address both the Pope of the Catholic Church and the Dalai Lama. Most formal titles, both in speaking and writing, precede a persons name. Those that follow a name include the honorary Esquire and academic suffixes that indicate possession of a degree, such as John Smith, Ph.D. Members of religious orders also use suffixes, such as John Smith, O.F.M., which indicates membership in the Ordo Fratrum Minorum (the Order of Friars Minor). Informal Forms of Address Informal terms of address are used outside of professional contexts and include terms such as nicknames, pronouns, and terms of endearment. Unlike professional forms of address, which are typically used to recognize a persons authority or accomplishments, informal terms of address are typically used to express affection or closeness. In the United States, common examples include: Honey: Used to show affection for a romantic partner or child.Dear: Used to show affection for a romantic partner or close friend.Babe/Baby: Used to show affection for a romantic partner.Bud/Buddy: Used to show affection for a close friend or child (sometimes used in a pejorative sense). In English, informal titles are sometimes used to show respect. Unlike formal titles, these do not indicate any level of professional or educational accomplishment: Mr.: Used to address both married and unmarried men.Mrs.: Used to address married women.Miss: Used to address unmarried women and girls.Ms.: Used to address women when marital status is unknown. The simple pronoun you can also be used as a term of address, i.e. Hey you, hows it going? In English, you is always informal. Some other languages, however, use multiple pronouns, each indicating a certain degree of formality. Japanese, for example, has many different pronouns that can be used between people depending on their relationship, and Spanish has both familiar and formal pronouns used as terms of address. Historically, terms of address have been used to emphasize class differences between those who have power and those who do not. The asymmetric use of names and  address terms  is often a clear indicator of a power differential, writes linguist Ronald Wardhaugh: School classrooms are almost universally good examples;  John  and  Sally  are likely to be children and  Miss  or  Mr. Smith  to be teachers. For a long time in the southern states of the United States, whites used naming and addressing practices to put blacks in their place. Hence the odious use of  Boy  to address black males. The asymmetric use of names also was part of the system. Whites addressed blacks by their first names in situations which required them to use titles, or titles and last names if they were addressing whites. There was a clear racial distinction in the process. Sources Straus, Jane. The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: the Mysteries of Grammar and Punctuation Revealed. John Wiley Sons, 2006.Wardhaugh, Ronald. Understanding English Grammar: a Linguistic Approach. Blackwell, 2007.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Interlanguage and teaching the language system Coursework

Interlanguage and teaching the language system - Coursework Example 3. Vocabulary acquisition in the foreign language is not as fluent or as quick as the native language. There are two primary reasons that can be identified as responsible for this phenomenon. First, the self consciousness of the foreign language learner, which makes him or her anxious about appearing foolish while speaking the second language and thereby restricts rapid learning, Second is the differences in grammatical structures between the two languages, which would make it slower for the foreign language learner to pick up vocabulary in the foreign language. Moreover, the differences in meaning of words in different socio cultural contexts and the need to express meaning correctly may slow down the process of vocabulary acquisition. 4. Pragmatics refers to the social interactions that take place in every language, where words are attributed a meaning that is comprised of not merely the grammatical meaning of a word but also the social context o its expression. 5. I visited a frie nd in Saudi Arabia and expressed admiration for his car. I intended this as a compliment in accordance with English language culture, but as per the Saudi culture, the expression of admiration meant a desire to own the object. As a result, my friend forced me to take his car. 6. Pronunciation depends on auditory discrimination which comes naturally when learning the first language; because of constant exposure to the language in the surrounding environment. Pronunciation patterns in the native language are the most deeply set and this would influence the kind of pronunciation of the second language learner. Native patterns would have a stronger impact because exposure to the second language pronunciation is also limited to classes. Hence, the two most important factors influencing pronunciation would be (a) native language and (b) time available for learning second language. 7. In my view, it is more important for second language learners to strive for intelligibility. Native level pronunciation is likely to take an enormous amount of time, especially as they are bereft of the high level of immersion and the childhood readiness and receptivity to their native language. Although it is beneficial for second language learners to strive for the fluency of native speakers, their communication would be hindered if they focused too much upon this objective, because they would become excessively conscious of errors and this would impede their learning. 8. The correction of pronunciation depends very much upon the context within which such correction occurs. When it is done in a derogatory manner or when carried out in front of other people, it feels humiliating and makes a learner even more hesitant about the learning. When correction of pronunciation is done in a friendly spirit, where it is deemed natural to make mistakes, the learner is more likely to respond positively – hence positive rather than negative criticism is vital. Activity 5: The book titled â⠂¬Å"Cambridge grammar of English† teaches grammar in the traditional way that has been used, i.e, through offering explanations of the rules of grammar. The objective fo the book is the same as that of any foreign language learning course, i.e, to provide for the ultimate end objective for a learner to learn conversation in the language. There is also a CD provided with the book, to enable learners to listen to the sound of the language. The book however works on the principle of providing the general

Friday, October 18, 2019

Approaches to Teaching and Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Approaches to Teaching and Learning - Essay Example My approach would be to first form the theoretical foundation of every concept in the learners’ minds and then demonstrate practical work or supervise them as they engage in practical work in which they apply the theoretical concepts learned before. I shall use direct instruction, informal instruction, inquiry-based learning, and cooperative learning randomly while teaching different techniques and topics so that students are never bored of the same teaching strategy and have something new to find in every session they attend. Besides, different learners have different preferred ways of learning (peterhoney.com, n.d.), so this way everybody’s needs would be addressed. Occasionally, I shall also invite experienced health and beauty experts and professionals to share their experiences with the learners and provide them with an insight into the health and beauty treatments and techniques. The strategies I shall use to enhance the learning of my students will include group discussions, demonstrations through tutorials on Youtube, group assignments, question and answer sessions, and circulation of journals. I shall foster a range of learning styles to achieve best results that would primarily include visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic learning style during the sessions of the first week. I shall design my sessions on different days in a week with strategies fostering different learning styles to accommodate the needs of all learners. Use of all these strategies would help me develop a holistic understanding of the techniques in the learners. I shall use the VAK model to provide the learners with an opportunity to see which teaching strategy works best for them. The visual learning style involves the use of vision e.g. seeing and reading, auditory learning style involves the use of speaking and listening, while kinaesthetic learning style involves the use of touching and doing. â€Å"The VAK learning

The Evolution of Automobiles from fossile fuels to hybrid and electric Research Paper

The Evolution of Automobiles from fossile fuels to hybrid and electric - Research Paper Example (Bruno 499-534) However, the car that many researchers agree began the move from using horse and buggies can be attributed to Karl Friedrich Benz, who invented the first true automobile with his innovative gasoline powered internal combustion engine between 1885 and 1886. His German patent for this three wheeled, four-cycle automobile was, DRP no. 37435. (Bruno 499-534) Between 1885 and 1903, there were several successful designs marketed in the United States, one of these was first Oldsmobile, the Curved Dash produced between 1900 and 1904. (GM) Henry Ford is among the most well-known of the automobile innovators with his launching of the Ford Motor Company in 1903 and subsequent use of the process including standardized parts and mass production of the Model T. From this point on automobiles became more efficient and widely used. The modern fossil fuel powered car is more fuel-efficient in many areas then many of the older cars that were produced; however, this is not by much. â₠¬Å"According to Ford, the Model T – which began mass-production in 1913 – averaged a fairly healthy 25 miles to the gallon. Nonetheless, by 1923, the year the study begins, the average fuel efficiency of the entire US fleet was 14 mpg.† (Mulcahy 1) According to the article, fuel efficiency has only improved an average of three miles per gallon. This means that unless we switch over to electric or hybrid vehicles we could see serious problems with the planets ecosystem. â€Å"Many of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel dependence. These impacts include global warming, air quality deterioration, oil spills, and acid rain.† (Clean Energy 2) Even though electric cars were used from almost the beginning, they have not been in widespread use until recently. With an increasing awareness of the world around us has come the need to reduce the use of fossil fuels. New technology using hydrogen fuel cells allow a much better , cleaner approach to the question regarding our environment around us. Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can be used to power nearly every end-use energy needed. (Hydrogen Fuel Cells) In 2007, General Motors (GM) unveiled a hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered version of its Chevrolet Volt concept, a family of electric cars that get a portion of their energy from being plugged into the electrical grid. (Bullis) Currently in the United States, there are several various hybrids and electric vehicles available for purchase, some of these are very small and some are transport trucks. Because too much use of fossil fuels can be bad for the environment the change to hybrid fuels and electric vehicles will be a good thing for the world. Beginning in 2009 several new cars became available. â€Å"Though a few electric cars and plug-in hybrids are currently available on the market, several new models including the Nissan LEAF, Chevrolet Volt, and Mitsubishi i MiEV are scheduled to hit the s treets in the near future. Toyota, creator of the popular Prius hybrid, has thus far declined to deliver a fully electric car.† (Timeline: History of the Car) We should see improvements in hybrid and electric cars over the next several decades and will likely see greater use until the fossil fuel cars are eventually no longer used. Works

Thursday, October 17, 2019

ASTR 123 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ASTR 123 - Assignment Example On the other hand, there seems to be much matter in the universe such that the universe may be in a continuous state of expansion The four root elements of the universe air, Earth, Water and fire are the main manifestation of material substances and physical manifestations. The interaction of these four elements is associated with two basic great life energies namely Love and Strife. The four elements combine and separate under opposing forces of Love and Strife to produce the changing world together with the continuous manifold of objects and qualities. The stars have to be made of a perfect and exalted substance because of evidences available in various natural motions. Some bodies move in straight lines while others move in circular orbits. According to Aristotle it is natural for objects moving in circular orbits to be spherical and that the world is unique. Dark matter is non- baryonic particles that do not collide with photons and pass through protons and neutrons. Hot dark matter is composed of particles that have zero or near-zero mass. The Special Theory of Relativity requires that massless particles move at the speed of light and that nearly massless particles move at nearly the speed of light. Thus, such very low mass particles must move at very high velocities and thus form very hot gases which are the stars Prior to this era of the Universe, neutrons and protons were rapidly changing into each other through the emission and absorption of neutrinos. Now the Universe has expanded and cooled to the point where that process slowed down. When the Universe was sufficiently hot and dense, there were so many electrons and anti-neutrinos hitting protons and changing them into neutrons. As the Universe kept expanding and cooling, the mean energy level of the particles dropped and so did the rate of neutrinos hitting protons and converting them into neutrons. The neutrinos and anti-neutrinos decoupled from the rest of the matter and

Toxicology Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Toxicology - Case Study Example These are antibiotics, miticides and neonicotinoid pesticides. This paper analyzes these three classes of chemicals. Neonicotinoids, commonly referred to as neonics, are a rather new variety of pesticides, having been manufactured and marketed for the last twenty or so years. Neonics are systemic pesticides(Hopwood, Vaughan and Shepherd 3). Contrary to contact pesticides that remain on the surface of the plant, systemics are absorbed by the plant and moved to all the tissues of the plant. Neonics can be sprayed at the root of a plant or sprayed onto its foliage. Once applied, neonics remain active for many weeks, protecting the plant throughout the season. Several neonics are sold for application to lawns, pot plants and crops raised in a greenhouse. A miticide, also known as acaricide, is any chemical substance used to control ticks and mites that are not affected by regular pesticides. Miticides are specifically designed to destroy those species of ticks and mites that damage food crops and ornamental plants(Burley 5). Some of the most commonly used miticides include tetradifon, azobenzene and dicofol. Most miticides are designed to kill the eggs and larvae of pests, but some also kill adult pests. Some miticides are known to be poisonous to honeybees and other useful insects. Despite knowledge of this adverse effect of miticides on honeybees, these substances continue to be manufactured and applied to crops widely in the country. An antibiotic is defined as a molecule or an agent that either kills or interferes with the growth of a living thing that is too tiny for the naked eye, also called a microorganism(Hawthorne and Dively 26). These microorganisms include both fungi and bacteria. Selman Waksman first coined the term in 1942 in their journal articles. They used the term to describe any substance that a microorganism produces and inhibits the growth of other microorganisms. "Bactericidal" antibiotics kill bacteria

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

ASTR 123 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ASTR 123 - Assignment Example On the other hand, there seems to be much matter in the universe such that the universe may be in a continuous state of expansion The four root elements of the universe air, Earth, Water and fire are the main manifestation of material substances and physical manifestations. The interaction of these four elements is associated with two basic great life energies namely Love and Strife. The four elements combine and separate under opposing forces of Love and Strife to produce the changing world together with the continuous manifold of objects and qualities. The stars have to be made of a perfect and exalted substance because of evidences available in various natural motions. Some bodies move in straight lines while others move in circular orbits. According to Aristotle it is natural for objects moving in circular orbits to be spherical and that the world is unique. Dark matter is non- baryonic particles that do not collide with photons and pass through protons and neutrons. Hot dark matter is composed of particles that have zero or near-zero mass. The Special Theory of Relativity requires that massless particles move at the speed of light and that nearly massless particles move at nearly the speed of light. Thus, such very low mass particles must move at very high velocities and thus form very hot gases which are the stars Prior to this era of the Universe, neutrons and protons were rapidly changing into each other through the emission and absorption of neutrinos. Now the Universe has expanded and cooled to the point where that process slowed down. When the Universe was sufficiently hot and dense, there were so many electrons and anti-neutrinos hitting protons and changing them into neutrons. As the Universe kept expanding and cooling, the mean energy level of the particles dropped and so did the rate of neutrinos hitting protons and converting them into neutrons. The neutrinos and anti-neutrinos decoupled from the rest of the matter and

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Power of Ideas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Power of Ideas - Essay Example This resulted in Hegel's theories, as well as the deeper focus on existentialism and phenomenology. Hegel's idealism, also known as Absolute Idealism, has severely affected society at large. The primary reason for this is because Hegel's work developed the framework for both Marxism and Darwin's Evolutionary Theory. Hegel's notions start with the idea that knowledge does not have the ability to explain itself; therefore human beings must trust their senses to understand knowledge. The mind also comes into play here, because the mind processes all senses, and thus becomes the primary focus of knowledge. Hegel believed that humans must contradict themselves in order to form a new way of thinking. To further explain this, Hegel burrowed the idea of the Absolute Ego from Fichte and renamed it the Absolute Spirit; to Hegel this meant that the earth cannot be measured based on personality. Hegel heavily believed in Pantheism and attributed this to the absolute spirit; basically, Hegel believed that God was in everything. This belief is a reflection of a Romantic view, and was a movement in the 19th century in direct result of the Industrial Revolution occurring in Europe (Hegel 1991). ... First, existentialist ideas will be discussed. Many of these themes were introduced by Arthur Schopenhauer, Soren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Existentialism believed that philosophy focuses on the individual, and that individual's interactions with the world. For example, Nietzche, a Continental philosopher, did not agree with Hegel's concept of idealism. Nietzche firmly felt the world is controlled by will-to-power. Furthermore, Nietzche also disagreed with Hegel on the concept of absolute truth; Nietzche did not believe in an absolute truth, he felt that everything was open to one's own interpretation. This is far different from Hegel's notion that the individual must look inward, to the self. Another concept promoted by existentialism that conflicts with Hegel's notions is the existentialist idea that the world itself is an absurd place, and there is no description for why the world acts in this way. Furthermore, existentialists believe that this inability for humans to understand why the world is chaotic causes self doubt, and therefore individuals have to decide how to live and progress in this type of chaotic world. Hegel, being a pantheist, would have seen some order in the world, as reflected in the idea that God is in everything. He would not have agreed with the concepts of a chaotic world causing self doubt. Hegel did not accept the existentialist concept of the "thing-in-itself." He believed that reality was a reflection of thought and rational. Thus, reality was not a collection of separate specifics; instead, it functioned like an articulate system of thinking, like mathematics; forming one large whole which pieces are all connected. Where Hegel was abstract to

Provisions for elite performers Essay Example for Free

Provisions for elite performers Essay Many elite performers start to progress after representing their school at competitions affiliated to the English Schools FA, such as the ESFA Coca Cola National Cups. These national competitions attract attention from district scouts. After representing their schools talented performers may be selected to represent these District teams. Then the performers could be selected to play for their county or to train with professional clubs youth teams. I believe that Britain is behind America in progressing their young sporting talent. There are no real scholarships in Britain like there are in the US. Students are expected to complete all school work as well as trying to improve at their chosen sport. There is also very little funding for less glamorous sports than football.  It can also be seen that although footballers who are regularly being paid tens of thousands of pounds a week are living a glamorous lifestyle, there are also thousands of players in the lower leagues who are being paid considerably less. These top-class footballers are set for life, however the less fortunate players who play in the lower leagues will have to retire at around the age of 34 or 35. The retired players usually have no real future as they have given all their lives to football. When they were young they were kicking a football around when they should have been studying. Many face financial ruin. Additional agencies and bodies  There are many additional agencies that help to ensure the smooth running of football clubs all over the country:  Organisations such as the St Johns ambulance service are at every Sutton United game.  UNICEF has teamed up with non-governmental organizations, private businesses, government agencies and football superstars to establish educational and recreational programs around the world that involve football. The global appeal of football is a tool for engaging young people in a positive future. TWS Associates Ltd is a specialist consumer marketing agency with over 20 years experience in football focussed campaigns, supporter research and relations.  The government also specifies that all people working with children are child protection officers. This helps to keep all participants free from any harm.  Provision for female competitors It can be clearly seen that there are many local football teams for men, however there are much fewer for women. This is also the case at professional level in the UK. There are now no full-time professional womens clubs. This is in contrast to women in football in the USA. The women have their own professional league with there seeming more interest in the womens game than in the mens. Due to this, the American womens national team has been very successful, winning two world cups. This shows just how far the British governing bodies are behind their American counterparts. In the past it has been seen unfeminine for women to play football in the UK. This has come from sexism in previous governments. Female football gets much less coverage on TV with only the Womens FA cup and internationals shown on TV. Some English women have had to resort to travelling to America to earn a living from football. Nationwide has sponsorship of the three womens leagues, under the banner of The F.A. Nationwide Womens Premier League. Nationwide also enjoy sponsorship of The F.A. Premier League Cup and partner sponsorship of The F.A. Womens Community Shield, The FA Womens Cup and the England womens teams.  Although there are girls teams at schools at the moment, there is much less participation than by the boys. This is because there seems to be no importance in the womens game. There are local cups as well as county and national cups. Unlike with the boys where there are teams for each year, there are teams for a group of ages, such as under15s or under 18s. This is again due to the lack of participation of the girls. There are a few scholarships for elite womens footballers at places such as Kingston and Richmond universities, but nowhere near the amount of their male counterparts. These scholarships are obviously only for the elite women footballers. At the moment womens football in England i s not very popular. Even the Womens World Cup and Womens football in the Olympics do not draw a lot of viewers. I believe that the only way that womens football could become more appealing would be if it could be hosted in this country. This would draw a lot of attention to the womens game. Provision for disabled athletes  Although there are huge numbers of people playing football all over the country, there are very few organisations who cater for disabled participants.  The British Football Association for the Visually Impaired, was established in the late 1970s to allow the opportunity for those individuals aged 16 and upwards with visual impairments, whether totally blind or partially sighted, to participate in football.  From those humble beginnings where only a handful of teams were involved came the implementation of a league system in 1980 and the visually impaired football league catering for partially sighted players has evolved progressively to this day. Today the British Blind Sport Football League comprises two divisions each containing 7 teams playing 5-a-side indoor football nation-wide teams from as far a field as the north-east South Shields and the south-west Avon Sports based in Bristol. The North West are represented by Northern Sports (Manchester) and Inter Cosmos mainly Cheshire based. The Midlands have a number of clubs; Birmingham Sports, Midland All-Stars, Loughborough Lions and the Royal National College for the Blind, RNC. The capital is represented by London Sports. Fulham Deaf FC was founded in 2003 by a group of deaf footballers led by Nick Beese who was somewhat concerned about the lack of deaf football opportunities in South West London and very keen to make a contribution in improving deaf football welfare in South West London, prior to the setting up of Fulham Deaf, there were only three deaf football clubs registered in the British Deaf Sports National Cup from London, whereas previously there used to be twelve London representations. The number of Deaf football clubs has decreased over the last decade unfortunately due to the lack of support and commitment from the community. Lack of understanding from the outside community has also contributed to this temporary downfall. However it does not mean that the numbers of deaf footballers in London are on the decline, as there are many active deaf five a-side teams in the capital competing in local five-a-side mainstream league.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Employee Motivation Strategies At Pizza Hut

Employee Motivation Strategies At Pizza Hut The researcher is of the view that motivation is understood by individuals isolated ways; it can either be by enlarged fiscal exhaust, augmentation or better profession expects, acknowledgment from upper-class and superior administration or it can be individual improvement and progress. The researcher refers to Pizza Huts Human Resource procedures as a centre of attention spot in the projected research. It is proposed to distinguish how the overall performance of the company depends on the proper management of the employees through motivation. Another belief of the researcher is that competition is in broad extrinsic because it cheers the performer to be successful and beat competitors and not to have the benefit of the fundamental rewards of the pursuit. 1.1. Title of the Research Proposal: An Investigation into Employee Motivation at Pizza Hut 1.2. Background to the organisation: Pizza Hut is a multinational restaurant and delivery company which is established in America in 1958. Now pizza Hut is the leading company in the world as it has the highest number of outlets and the high percentage of market share. The company oversees more than 11,000 pizza restaurants and delivery stores in 90 countries all over the world. Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 21. St. James Press, 1998. Pizza Hut constantly observes and supervises its employees and guarantees that they are contented with the strategies and any of the feedbacks are taken as a consideration for the policy and the services. 1.3 Importance of Research: The research proposal is based on the employee motivation of an organization. Employee motivation is one of the major drivers of organizational performance. The importance of the proposed research is as follows: 1.3.1. Importance to organization: The researcher will be able to identify that if the employees of an organization are highly motivated and optimistic they will do all the necessary works to accomplish the purpose of the organization as well as they will be keep going with any of the potential challenges. The researcher will also able to evaluate how the employee motivation effects to the stability of an organization. 1.3.2. Importance to academic body of knowledge: The researcher believes that the completed research will provide academic benefits to all its users whether a management and non-management background. This research will provide the various theories and literature based on the employee motivation which governed at different stages and circumstances. If it is not so possible, the researcher is going to illustrate the best premises from the existing theories to execute an action plan for Pizza hut. 1.3.3. Personal importance: At present the researcher works as a support manager of same organization accountable for convalescing and boosting employee motivations within the company. With this research, researcher feels to have a scope to generate the weekly reward system and structure an incentive plan for the crew members. Apart from that the researcher has expanded a good perceptive of how the motivation is related with the theories and how the internal business runs. Most of all, the researcher learnt how to handle work force throughout the research proposal. 1.4. Research Objectives: The purpose of research is to answers and to discover answers to research questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to search for truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. The researcher anticipates examining and distinguishing the followings: To critically evaluate the existing literature on employee motivation To identify distinct models that facilitate clarify matters on employee motivation To analyze the reasons of employee de-motivation. To examine the dynamic motivational enticements provided by Pizza Hut. To develop an instructive theory that related confident aspects with the efficiency of the employee motivation. To recommend proposal for improving employee motivation. 1.5. Research questions: The researcher presumes that the proposed research will explore employee motivation features but there are also other surprising questions may appear. The proposed dissertation will look for the way out set up by the following questions: What is the significance of employee motivation? What does the inspiration of employee motivation necessitate? How do the distinct theories of employee motivation correlate? Why does employee motivation lead to successful organization? What are the key factors that can enhance the motivation in Pizza Hut employees? What are the main features Pizza Hut can take to move on employee motivation? 2. Literature Review: A literature review utilizes as its database information of primary or original learning, and does not account new primary research itself. Cooper (1988), Motivation can be defined as the psychosomatic method that provides activities function and way. In easy way to write that motivation is the internal power that drives persons to attain targets in both individual and professional. Kreitner (1995) 2.1. Maslows (1943) Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow (1943) set up a pyramid which he called essential needs supported in order to significance. Maslow (1943) as cited Kotler (2001) suggested that there is also a prospect that individuals may prefer to give up most of their needs, becoming sufferer for living with high ethical values. According to the original and eventual and fundamental Maslows (1943) Hierarchy of needs, five human motivational needs are as follows: Physiological and Biological Requirements: fundamental requirements for survival like hunger, desire and thirst, sensory satisfaction. Phychol (1941) Safety Requirements: shelter from hurt or risk of danger or death, commandment, restrictions, strength, etc. Social Requirements: also can be described as love wants that means desire to offer and accept love, liking and affiliation, etc. Freud (1937) Esteem Requirements: self-respect, realization, freedom, position, governance, reputation, executive accountability, etc. Goldstein (1939) Self-Actualization Requirements: understanding individual aptitude, self- realization, looking for individual augmentation and knowledge. Source: http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm It is not possible to encourage someone to reach his/her sales goal (level 4) when he is having struggles with his/her marriage (level 3). Similarly, its impossible to expect someone to be a team leader (level 3) while he/she is on his house re-possessing (level 2). 2.2. Banduras (1977) Self-Efficacy Theory: In 1977, Albert Bandura hypothesized the Self-Efficacy theory which supports the principle that motivation and operation results are main causal features where an individual regards as he/she can achieve the job. Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem There is a minor dissimilarity among these terminologies: Self-efficacy means the capability to achieve a positive role; on the other hand self-esteem exposes the faith of individuals personality. Self-fulfilling Prophecy: People hold high self-efficacy will have the high assurance and be successful in satisfying and completing a given task successfully. Goal-Difficulty: People who have high self-efficacy lean to appoint and unite challenging objectives. Success Rate: Self-efficacy possibly will stalk from previous good performance or unsuccessful. When the new incentive plan will be introduced at Pizza Hut it should be seen from the better performance of employees from the past. Goal-dedication: To pursue a certain goal there may difficult barrier arise but if the employees have high self-efficacy must exhibit high goal responsibility. 2.3. McGregors (1960) XY Theory: The XY Theory was proposed by the famous psychologist Douglas McGregor in his book The Human Side of Enterprise in 1960. McGregor was an American social psychologist, whose theory proposed a stage to expand optimistic administration approach and procedures, so that even today McGregors X-Y Theory is broadly used to obtain information for executive progress. Theory X The managers who are in theory X group are expected to be oppressive. It is difficult to deal with the people who are in the group when they start to perform their job. When the theory deals with the employees, it is seen that they need continuous command, less responsibility, they are not determined, desires job safety and security. Theory Y The managers who are to this grouping are supposed to have participative supervision approach. They seem to be centric administrators who have faith in hands-on attitude to daily concern. This is the belief of the researcher that Pizza Hut will have more Y theory employees as well as managers to enhance the situation of the organization. 2.4. Adams Equity theory: With the analysis of theories recommended by Maslow, Herzberg and other pioneers of workplace and behavioural psychologist, John Stacey Adams set out his Equity Theory in 1963. Adams (1963) conferred his own understanding of an incentive -to- endeavour proportion by signifying that all employees provide their inputs and receive outputs. Inputs are what are given into labour like allegiance, loyalty, gives up long working hours when needed. Outputs are all that is taken out in return like compensation, reward, acknowledgment etc. The researcher deeply believes that the administration at pizza Hut should consistently interconnect to the employees and reveal company information, enquiries and other special offers as well as reward system among them. 2.5. Herzbergs (1959) Two Factor Theory: Frederick Herzberg is recognized with the creation of the two factors theory. Herzberg (1959) did his investigation among 200 engineers and accountants and was proficient to establish that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work stalked from different aspects not from differing response. The two factors theory is consisting of hygiene and motivational needs. Hygiene factor is also known as maintenance factors such as: Compensation benefits of employee Policy for company Personal and professional life Job safety Relation with others Working environment. Motivational needs are more fundamental by people such as: Attainment Acknowledgment Job itself Accountability Career Augmentation From the theory, the researcher desires to force the point that there must be a great stability amid the hygiene and motivational requirements at Pizza Hut. 2.6. Vrooms (1964) expectancy theory: According to Vroom (1964), the motivation is subjective not only by prestige of a conclusion but an appraisal of its viability. Calculation of probability of an effect being attained is in turn inclined by three things as follows: Accessibility of the required conclusion Individual confidence that a definite action will consequence in conclusion Individual assurance that one has the capability to execute the necessary act effectively. 3.1. Academic Debate: A main question stand to the research subject is why is Motivation so essential? Motivation is a composite purpose for executives to follow as McGregors (1960) XY theory but depends on the different categories. Kovach (1987) monitored as at unique profession points motivation requirements are different. For example, while an employee is young and income enhance, money becomes less motivator whereas later exciting work becomes more of motivator. Adam (1965) Equity Theory notified that when there is lack of gratitude in workplace, discrimination possibly will appear. On the other hand, Houran (2007) notified the initiation of small cluster enticement which cheers employees to give more inputs as McGregors (1960) XY theory illustrates. Martin (2001) in his pragmatic learning has augmented problems recruiting potential employees by following the right method of recruiting. While recruitment is done it is not expected that the employees will be automatically motivated. 3.2. Beyond the debate: The theories which have been described are the shedding of motivation. Nonetheless the theories are followed; the most important factors are the fascinating work and intensive pay for the employee. The researcher understood that if there is the proper configuration in between individual and proficient objects, then employee motivation is an easy task. There are other choices such as job improvement, enhancement, encouragement, fiscal and non-fiscal reward (e.g. identification) should be well thought-out. It may be really tough to moderate the reward system of an organization for all individuals but it is possible to formulate an acceptable method which is suitable for both employees and company. 4. Research Methodology: Saunders et.al (2009) rationalized the methodology as the method of how research should be carried out. By means, methodology has been referred to the procedures and implementations used to attain and investigate data (Ibid). 4.1. Research Philosophy: Research philosophy can be defined as the expansion of learning in a distinct subject and the characteristics of that learning. Saunders et.al (2009) According to Saunders et.al (2009), there are three major types of research philosophy: Epistemology Epistemology can be sub divided into followings: Positivism Positivism has a meaningful theoretical point of view which has the required reflection of data that is being taken. The existing theory will assist to bring about thesis. If data is been collected properly only then a research approach and strategy can be concluded wherein data can be collected. Realism This philosophical approach testifies that what is professed by the right mind and what is the truth, it is not driven by the existing theory or belief and individual assessment and imitations. However, Realism is only significant when data is accrued, evaluated and illuminated. Interpretivism Interpretivism raises the thought that the communal issue is crucial to identify with the variation among human essence. It is known that each and every human creature is a social performer who interprets his/her basic and social wants and for the others which he/she can realize from the thought. Ontology Ontology philosophical approach which overlays the way, as cited in Saunders et.al (2009), to the sufficiency of the learning gained by the overall investigation progress. The features of authenticity and the view how the process is carried out are more important in this philosophy. Axiology Axiology is one type of philosophical approach which deals with the observations and evaluation conceded on human morals that are demonstrated to clarify that the research is done with the credibility. 4.2. Research Approach: As the researcher ready decided the research philosophy he will adapt so it must be thought for the most appropriate research approach to be carried out the research. According to Saunders et.al (2007), the major research approaches includes: Deductive Approach Deductive approach is what to test existing theory. The deductive approach inclines more to the positivism. Saunders et.al (2009) which is cited by Robson (2002) hypothesizes that if the deductive approach is selected, there are 5 stages how the research will be carried out: Investigating the association between conceptions or variables and then test the hypothesis. The conceptions or variables will be calculated and then expressed in effective terminologies. Testing of hypothesis. Assessing the outcomes. Acknowledge or modify the conceptions. Inductive Approach Inductive approach is necessarily more research oriented because here the researcher collects the data and critically analyzes and then develops a hypothesis from all the observations. If the data is available and if the data is well interpreted then it is possible to make an knowledgeable appraisal about the projected research design. Secondly, access of data can be very partial or sometimes totally impossible to access or may be the researcher does not have prior knowledge. Easterby-Smith et.al (2002) cited in Saunders et.al (2009) As the research objectives are formulated, the researcher must choose the deductive approach because of the existing data. The researcher considers that in deductive approach the data does exist and that is why the overall research will be quicker and smooth and the another reason for choosing deductive approach that the researcher feels that there is a low risk in this approach. 4.3. Research Strategy As the deductive approach is chosen it is important to choose the similar research strategy to match. There are some important research strategies include: Experiment Case study Action research Grounded theory Ethnography and archival research Survey Source: Saunders et.al (2009) From above research strategies the researcher feels that the most appropriate strategy will be the survey framing a questionnaire. The researcher will carry out the questionnaire with the data collected from the current employees at Pizza Hut within his store as well as the other. 5. Research Sampling: The research will be focusing on the questionnaire based on the employees, support managers and the RGM. The employees who are in the restaurant and the delivery units will be the main focus. Sampling methods can be categorized as: Saunders et.al (2009) Probability or Representative Sampling: If the probability of each personal being taken from the complete personnel is known then it is called representative sampling. The probability sampling is perfect for survey and investigational research strategies. Non Probability or Judgmental Sampling; If the probability of each personal being taken from the complete personnel is unknown then it is called judgmental sampling, this would be essential if it is used in a pilot survey. From above sampling the researcher will be taking probability sampling for his research because the sample of his research is fully known. 6. Research Credibility: The research is credible when there is less research is done in this precise part in the organization. Credibility depends on the faithfulness of the researcher that it is only be used for the academic purposes. The most important factor is to believe that the variables which researcher has taken are appropriate for the specific research. Furthermore, the confidentiality for research work is also important and the anonymity is another part of research work. The researcher must acknowledge that the data he/she got from the participants, these will confident and no third party will be involved here. Validity is all about determining if the generated outcomes are essentially true. There are some threats mentioned in Saunders et.al (2009): The researcher must be concern when he will carry out the research. Furthermore, if the researcher wants to attain the data from every step, the employees may not like it and may be they will refuse to disclose. There should not be a specific time for the participants to complete the questionnaire. There are some aspects have to be maintained: Time management and choosing of right variables for the research. The participants must not be prejudiced by higher authority, mystery should be there. The questionnaire must be systematic and free of error. The data collection must be correct even though there is any critical situation. 7. Time Horizon: There are two well known methods are used traditionally for the studies of development are: Longitudinal or Cross sectional. However, both methods have advantages as well as disadvantages. Salkind (2004) Longitudinal study is a relationship research study that necessitates frequent observations of the identical objects over an extent phase of time, where the time can be for 5 to 10 years or more. The Cross sectional study is a study that necessitates observations of all of inhabitants on a representative subset at a distinct time where the time can be 6 to 12 months. The researcher will be using the cross sectional technique because the short period of time and the variables of the research is known. The longitudinal technique will not help the researcher because there is not so much time for the frequent observations of the identical matter as the participants will not be interested. 8. Data Collection: Secondary research methods: Secondary data refers to the data that has been collected by others for another purpose. The main advantage of collecting the secondary data is that it can save considerable time and effort as the data already exists. Among secondary data, the following types of secondary will be examined- Academic research E-resources Company website Other relevant publication Media Documentary secondary data Survey based secondary data Primary research methods The objectives in conducting the primary research is to acquire new and the latest data in order to be processed into useful information to give solution to the research question. If the data collected does not meet the aspects of reliability and validity, the research will not get its credibility. The researcher will choose both the methods because collecting secondary data is less time and money consuming and data is sustainable, authentic and reliable. Secondary data is innovative and easy for comparison and most importantly easy to access and available. Primary method is an effective as comments and responses can be attained by applying less effort, time and money. 9. Ethical Issues: Ethics while the research is carrying out is linked with the overall process that the way research topic is chosen, intended, the data collection methods, data analyzing process and stored all through the credibility and fairness. The researcher is going to go behind his own regulations of ethics which will a classical model are as follows: Privacy of participants Participants ability to withdraw partially or completely from the research Confidential maintenance of data given to protect anonymity Participants should be comfortable while sharing information Researchers right to safety Deception Participants confidentiality Discrimination Respecting target sample Right to anonymity No risk of harm Source: Saunders et.al (2009) 10. Data Access and Resource Implication: The researcher kept in his mind while choosing the objectives and the questions that where he can gain access the data. The proposal should be on that particular area where the researcher has the access to the essential data to complete a successful dissertation. Naom(2007). The researcher will use all sources of data which will have the availability of access to complete the research. The data will be collected from various academic books, articles, journal etc. The data also will be collected from the various internet search engine, e-journal, articles etc. Another important source is from the organisations website. Collection of data is through direct survey, averages in order to get perfect data directly from the employees. In terms of expenses all the elements will be reasonably priced and the researcher will try to keep all the costs as low as possible. Because of the interview will be taken in store so there will be no expense for this. 11. Action Plan TASKS TIME 1. Academic Knowledge June 2010 2. Topic Selection June 2010 3. Firm up Objectives and questions July 2010 4. Research Literature July 2010 5. Write Literature Review Aug 2010 6. Write Methodology Aug 2010 7. Prepare Questionnaire Sep 2010 8. Pilot Questionnaire Refine Sep 2010 9. Administer Questionnaire/ Collect Data/ Analyse Data Oct 2010 10. Write Findings Oct 2010 11. Write discussion/ Conclusion/ Recommendation Nov 2010 12. Reflective review Nov 2010 13. Proof Reading Dec 2010 14. Turn it in and Print Binding Jan 2011 15. Submit Dissertation Jan 2011 12. References: Adams (1963) Bandura, A. (1977). Self efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Broom (1964) Cooper H. M. (1988). The structure of knowledge synthesis Knowledge in Society, vol. 1, pp. 104-126 Freud, A (1937), The ego and the mechanisms of defence, Hogarth, London Psychological Review Goldstein, K (1939), The Organism, American Book Company, New York. Herzbergs (1959) Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, Wong (2001): Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall Kreitner, R. (1995). Management, 6th Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. McGregors (1960) Martin, Samuel (2001). Secrets of Employee Motivation, Journal of the American Chiropractic Association. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, July 1943. 370-396. Phychol. Bull(1941), The experimental analysis of appetite, p 129-164 Salkind N J (2004). An Introduction to Theories of Human Development, SAGE Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, p. 108, 119, 124, 127, 140-142, 155-160, http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Pizza-Hut-Inc-Company-History.html http://www.pizzahutfranchise.co.uk/html/history.html