Friday, May 31, 2019
Management and managing argon characteristically gendered in many regard (Broadbridge and Hearn 2008)In view of the above statement consider the roles of men and womenat move around.This essay will aim to understand whether or not management is characteristically gendered and if it is, then to ascertain what the cause for this segregation or demoralisation (if any) is. Certain factors such as biological, social and structural aspects will be analysed Since the beginning of universe there has always been an inherent dispute regarding the disparity between men and women women being the individuals who more(prenominal) often than not seem to be undermined in their abilities to be equal to their male counterparts. From an ethnographic perspective and looking at how the mass media portray the ironically termed fairer sex it seems that women have always been viewed under a colder, more subordinate light. They seem to always be assigned the passenger seat (Eagly and Carli, 2007 pg 18) arguing that women were (and maybe still are) treated as a passenger in the car as opposed to driving, directing and essentially controlling and leading the journey. The Suffragette movement led by Emmeline Pankhurst in 1918 led women to succeed in gaining the sound to vote whereas males were only allowed to vote prior to the successful movement. To this day women are still paid on average less than men (Independent.co.uk). The main capitulum is why? Why are women in the workplace vertically and horizontally segregated? Why are women paid less on average sluice when it is in direct comparison to the same job role? To come to a fair and reasonable conclusion it would be essential to look at the natural or biological differences between both genders f... .... All in all, to ameliorate and eliminate gender disparity and gender discrimination against women at work is a crucial duty for the government, employers as well as women themselves. Only if each member of the society, wom en and men, usher out benefit from its social mechanism can the public has a more functional and healthy environment to work in and live in. Work is critical to womens survival and independence (MacKinnon, 1979). Therefore, all parties should jointly pay attention to the oppressed situation of working women and adopt relevant measures to establish an effective mechanism to eliminate gender discrimination so that women can truly enjoy equal rights to pursue life and happiness as their opposite sex. The following are some statistics to show how certain career paths are different for males and females.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Throughout the novel The Great Gatsby, there is a constant theme present tender class. Fitzgerald makes a connection between the theme of social class, and the settings in the novel for example The Valley of Ashes which is described as a desolate area of down (p.21) and a solemn dumping ground (p.21) which is where the poor people live. The Valley of Ashes is situated between West Egg and New York, West Egg organism the place where the aspiring classes are situated, which is the less fashionable of the two (p.8), this is where Gatsby lives. West Egg is the place of new money, Fitzgerald shows this by the idea of the main contri preciselyion Jay Gatsby, rumoured to be selling illegal alcohol (prohibition) which means he is quickly making vast measuring sticks of money. Who is this Gatsby anyhow? Some big bootlegger?(p.86) Gatsby shows off the amount of wealth he has by his fabulous parties and all oversized mansion. There was music from my neighbours house through those summer nights. In his enchanted gardens, men and girls came and went like moths, among the rustle and the champagne and the stars.(p.33) Fitzgerald uses the word enchanted to paint a visual picture of what the house and the scene looks like, a magical and enchanted castle, with elegant furniture. This is in resemblance to East Egg where Tom and Daisy Buchanan live, in a house where The windows were ajar and gleaming white against the fresh grass outside (p.10). East Egg universe the place of old money which is made from the inheritance of their past generations, the people who live it East Egg are mainly well educated, historically pie-eyed and live quite elegantly, but they are also quite snobbish. Gatsbys background does not fit into the social standards of East Egg... ...om because behind Georges back, Tom is having an affair with his wife Myrtle Wilson thickish figure of a woman (p.23). Within the Valley Of Ashes there is Wilsons garage the interior unprosperous and bare (p.22) bu t also the famous Doctor T.J.Eckleburg advertisement They look out of no face, but instead, from a pair of enormous yellow spectacles which pass over a non-existent nose (p.21). The Doctor T.J.Eckleburg advertisement has a connection with the character George Wilson because, the morning after the accident the sunlight lit up the billboard, Wilson believes that this was a sign from God. The eyes of Doctor T.J.Eckleburg are through Nicks viewpoint the giant eyes of Doctor T.J.Eckleburg kept their vigil, but I perceived after a moment, that the other eyes were regarding us with peculiar intensity from less than twenty feet away (p.99)
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Bombshells Benefit Calendar Business PlanExecutive SummarySSSAMM Inc. plans to create a benefit calendar called, tie downsBombshells. The calendar will contain photographs of female BondUniversity students who have been selected to be the Bombshells fromBond Uni. The calendar will include advertisements from local vendorsthat address to the target population along with information onupcoming events on campus. The calendar will not only be functional,to keep up on action on campus, provide coupons and deals with localbusinesses barely the photos of the Bombshells will also be enjoyable tocustomers visual desires.The calendar will be created for the target interview of male studentsthat attend Bond University. This group includes men ranging the ageof 16 to 25. Another segment of the population at Bond Universitythat could be potential customers but are not included in the targetaudience is male faculty and staff. Although their patronage iswelcome it is not counted on.No special ad vertising such as posters or commercials will be used toreach customers. SSSAMM Inc. merely plans that through word of mouthand visual sales will attract customers. sales will take place at thebusiest hours of the weekday in the busiest area of campus, under thearch.SSSAMM Inc. has strong confidence that their product will be verysuccessful. Through trade research, a market for the product wasestablished and continuous verbal advertisement was followed up withassurance by the population of success with the product. IntroductionImagine a beautiful girl dressed in brightly coloured swimwear posedwith a tennis racket and a ball. This is the image that SSSAMM Inc.plans to use to sell its Bonds Bombshells benefit calendar. Thiscalendar will have the look of a professional production and the costwill only be $15. All the scratch made from this product will bedonated to Plan Australia, a charity whose purpose is to help end thepoverty across the world. All production cost will be cover ed by thesale of advertisements to local businesses. The businesses will placeadvertisements and coupons throughout the calendar adding to the valueof the product.The best kind of marketing for a product like this is word of mouth. As customers are satisfied with their purchase they will spread wordto others that could be interested in the calendar. A necessitate hasbeen established in the market, which was discovered through marketingresearch. From a poll of male students on campus a majority of themsaid they would buy the calendar and others suggested that in that location is ahigh percentage of others that would also buy Bonds Bombshellsbenefit calendar.
PARADISE FLUBBED Pynchon & the New World When, in Gravitys Rainbow, A screaming comes across the sky, it is the sound of a V-2 rocket arcing up and over the face Channel.But the rockets vapor trail (which Pirate Prentice sees from kneedeep in the primordial mulch of his bananararium) points further on over the Atlantic, on toward the States, the New World, Tyrone Slothrops yearned-for, perhaps illusory home. The rockets lane ends a fraction of an inch above the readers head, the rocket suspended, poised ... A tableau representing the possibile if not quite realized Apocalypse.In his first novel, V., Pynchon explored the death-worshipping mania, the will-to-the-inorganic hubris, the sheer Gotterdamerng gaga-ness of a Dying Europe.And the final scene from Gravitys Rainbow seems to (almost) complete that arc, to represent Europes death rattle a last gasp (and grasp)--as if the Old World, having given birth to the New, now wished to present that Other in a last suicidal embrace. Dont bother, says Vineland.Well do it ourselves, eventually.Not by introducing some new evil into this New Eden, but simply by retro-fitting America with the same brutal mannerisms, the same authoritarian conceits, the same mania for Tidying Up that destroyed Europe--all of these urges which Pynchon sees as (in Fredric Jamesons terms) necessary preconditions for the rise to imperialist hegemony and colonialist cruelty, and the inevitable descent into fascistic insanity. The whiteness of decay that looms over V. is for Pynchon inextricably connected with Americas Puritanical beginnings, both genealogical and esthetic.The Crying of Lot 49 ends, in fact, with what Edward Mendelson calls a penultimate pentecostal moment the bo... ...nd thus it might be suggested that capital A fiction challenges rather than satisfies, disappoints (that word implying how much of our thinking is shaped by our lifelong desire to trip out gravitys wagging finger) rather than reassures.The minimalist Triumvira te rules beneath a banner stolen from Holiday InnNo Surprises.While what we read with greater effort offers, we sense, greater reward.To push beyond, further, aside to scolder through the jungle despite the fact that the pathway is perfectly clear, asphalted, guard-railed, signposted, edge-trimmed, icon-d, OSHA-inspected, patrolled, mapped, sanitized .... Pynchons fiction lives, and occasionally (all too seldom) communicates from Out There, out in the jungle, out where the outdistance between Sign and Signifier is a gap wide enough to break your neck, should you leap into it.Out on the Frontier, still, always.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The wife of Bath, Dame Alice is quite a spiteful woman even though she desires only a few childlike things in life power and control. Through her prologue and tale, she makes mirror images of herself , which reflects the person who she really is.      Dame Alice desires the obvious in life, but what she most desires above all is cosmos more powerful than her man, her spouse, and her lover. In a relationship, she wishes to be dominant, the one who has the last to say, the one who has control over all things in the relationship. This can be starting seen in her prologue, "Ill have a husband yet who shall be both my debtor and my slave and bear his tribulation to the grave upon his flesh, as long as Im his wife. For mine shall be the power all his life over his proper body, and not he"(55-59). It is then shown again in her tale when knight returns the move and fulfills the task assigned by the queen, "a woman wants the self-same sovereignty over her husband as over her lover, and master him he must not be above her" (174-176). Yet another example of Dame Alices wish to be dominant is presented later in the tale told by her. The old hag, after marrying the knight, gives him a choice. It was either to have her old and ugly but faithful or young and pretty but wonder off. "You have two choices which one testament you try? To have me old and ugly till I die, but still loyal, true, and humble wife that will never displease you all her life, or would you rather I were young and pretty and chance your arm what happens in the city where friends will visit you because of me, yes, and on other places too, maybe."(309-316)      By comparing the Wife of Baths prologue to her tale, it is quite obvious that Dame Alice wants to be the old hag. In some aspects, Dame Alice can be said to be jealous of the old hag. subsequently all, the hag was given power and dominance over her husband. In Dame Alices true li fe it was not completely true. The husbands that Dame Alice had, "three of them were good and two were bad." (92) The three that she had were called good because they "were rich and old"(93) Dame Alice had complete control over them.
The Wife of Bath, Dame Alice is quite a spiteful woman redden though she desires only a few simple things in life power and control. Through her prologue and tale, she makes mirror images of herself , which reflects the person who she really is.      Dame Alice desires the obvious in life, besides what she most desires above all is being more powerful than her man, her spouse, and her l everywhere. In a relationship, she wishes to be dominant, the one who has the last to say, the one who has control everywhere all things in the relationship. This can be first seen in her prologue, "Ill have a husband yet who shall be both my debtor and my slave and check his tribulation to the grave upon his flesh, as long as Im his married woman. For mine shall be the power all his life over his proper body, and non he"(55-59). It is consequently shown again in her tale when knight returns the castle and fulfills the task assigned by the queen, "a woman wants t he self-same sovereignty over her husband as over her lover, and master him he must not be above her" (174-176). Yet another example of Dame Alices wish to be dominant is presented later in the tale told by her. The old hag, after marrying the knight, gives him a choice. It was either to have her old and ugly but faithful or young and pretty but wonder off. "You have two choices which one will you try? To have me old and ugly till I die, but still loyal, true, and humble wife that will never displease you all her life, or would you rather I were young and pretty and chance your arm what happens in the city where friends will ring you because of me, yes, and on other places too, maybe."(309-316)      By comparing the Wife of Baths prologue to her tale, it is quite obvious that Dame Alice wants to be the old hag. In some aspects, Dame Alice can be said to be jealous of the old hag. After all, the hag was given power and dominance over her husband. In D ame Alices true life it was not completely true. The husbands that Dame Alice had, "three of them were good and two were bad." (92) The three that she had were called good because they "were rich and old"(93) Dame Alice had complete control over them.
Monday, May 27, 2019
History Pharmacogenetics was first discovered in the 1950s, however it was used to isolate how genes expungeed the metabolizing of medicates. When pharmacogenetics was first started, they did not overhear the aid of the technology we do today, so the doctors of the 1950s discovered how genes affected drugs by testing how people of different ethnicities reacted to drugs, and they would record how one ethnicity would react to drug and what side effects they would get compared to an otherwise ethnicity, however this was first done because of curiosity or chance.Once enough data had been collected, it showed that these tests should be done for any other drug made in the drug development process, and has since then progressed through the years due to the progression of technology. Facts First pharmacogenetics trait discovered was the inability to perceptiveness the chemical phenylthiourea, and this was due to hereditary reasons. Negative drug reactions are believed to be the reason beh ind 100,000 deaths in U. S. hospitals every year. 2. 2 million more engender from non fatal but still serious reactions to drugs each year.What is Pharmacogenetics? Pharmacogenetics is the study of how the genes of a psyche will affect how they react to drugs. This reaction can be irrefutable or negative, the positive affect being the drug working, and the negative affect could be bad reactions or death. These reactions are caused by the way your genes react with the ingredients of the drug. By engaging in the study of pharmacogenetics, we know figured out why men and women react to drugs differently, and why people of different races react to drugs differently.Using this knowledge doctors have changed the ingredients and structure of the drugs so that they would have the desired affect. With advances in Pharmacogenetics, People would not have to go to the doctors over and over again because they had a negative affect to the drug, because after your doctor had examined your gene s, he would be able to identify the perfect drug for you, which would less likely have severe effects. Ethical questions intimately PharmacogeneticsOne of the biggest problems with pharmacogenetics is that the person must be genetically screened first so that their doctor can analyze their genes and see which drug would be best for the patient. What is wrong with the genetic check is that if the family the patient was working out found out the person was likely to die young or had a tendency to get sick, the company could end up firing the person to cut costs if the company offers health insurance to its workers.Health insurances Companies could also use the information they found out about this person to deny them coverage or raise the price of their coverage.Sources www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752627/ http//www. actionbioscience. org/genomic/barash. html http//www. prozactruth. com/pharmagenetics. htm http//www. dartmouth. edu/dmsheart/genetics/pharm/pharm. html h ttp//www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/About/primer/pharm. html http//medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/Pharmacogenetics www. ornl. gov/hgmis/medicine/pharma. html www. nigms. nih. gov/pharmacogenetics/
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Few can dispute the beauty and grace of the Baroque era. It is trying to define this era as it was a term later put to the ideas of the age between 1600 and 1750. The Baroque grew up at the beginning of the s unconstipatedteenth century in papal Rome, where, rather than a clearly defined style, it was a tendency, common to all the arts in short, it was a taste, a fashion (Conti 3)The artists of this age tried to break away from previous conventions, while at the same clock hailing the past geniuses. It focused on a tantalizing mixture of nonagenarian and new, and on action a moment caught within a canvas.Baroque meant political campaign, desire for nobility, love of the infinite and the non-infinite, of contrasts and bold fusion of all forms of art. It was as dramatic, exuberant, and internal representation as the preceding period had been serene and restrained. (Conti 4) In particular, the intricacies of light and shadow perfected by Caravaggio be non just pleasant to th e eye of the past. A camera is now used, and adorning the walls of most(prenominal) houses you find black and white prints, payoffively showing the contrasts between deep shadows and gleaming light.What is this, but the every mans get to exalt what Caravaggio achieved? The impulse toward the adoption of this idiom (thematic use of light and shade) came from Italy, indeed from a single Italian artist . . . known as Caravaggio Although his work has been more attacked by few critics than appreciated, there is no incertitude that he marked the beginning of a new epoch. . . His pictorial matters showed sturdy peasants, innkeepers and gamblers and though some terms they might be dress as saints, apostles and fathers of the Church they represented reality in its most crude and harsh aspect.(Conti 40-41) Caravaggio was born in 1571, and in his relatively short disembodied spirit time of thirty nine years, he managed to bring Italian art to a whole new level. His subject matter cha nged over the years and depended largely upon his patrons desires. maculation much of his patronage, just like Leonardo de Vinci and Michelangelo before him, depended on the Church, the wealthiest and most dominant force in Italian politics at the time, he was non always in their favor. Caravaggio was a notorious brawler with a dark temperament. This temperament and violence is easily visible in more of his whole kit.While he started his career in the late 1590s painting spring chicken boys p locateing music or holding flowers, he was without a doubt most famous for his later works with more religious and often violent themes. It is in these works we see his definitive use of light and dark. This technique, recreated by Caravaggio, was called tenebrism, and was in effect a more intense version of an already existing technique called chiaroscuro. This use of light and dark, of shadow and narrow beams of illumination, was highly effective, and has inspired artists for many years since. Indeed, . . in Caravaggios universe there can be no light without darkness. (Martin 223) This, along with his interesting and highly controversial usage of ordinary folk of the time, helped his works to cubicle out against others as dramatically as his use of light and shadow. He was a highly valued and famous artists of his time, but while his works influenced some of the greatest artists of all time (including Velazquez and Monet), his fame diminished quickly following his death and until the early 20th Century. Much of the information written virtually him came from contemporary enemies any rival artists or critics who did not approve of his works.Many of Caravaggios greatest works revolve around subjects involved in movement as well as deep emotion. Rather than have a noble person pose, he not only chose lowly peasants and prostitutes as his subjects, but painted them in the throes of movement or action. This effect acts as a snapshot, a glimpse into the life of the people within the painting. The effect of a camera could not produce a more fascinating result a true study of human emotion and activity. Particularly regarding his religious subject matter he fell into controversy.He seldom used the pious perfection of Mannerism for his techniques, quite choosing to use a prostitute to model for the Virgin (Death of the Virgin), and an old man to pose as St. Matthew (St Matthew and the Angel). This election made him popular and unique in many circles, and earned him an eager and young following. But among the established artist clique and in particular among certain(a) members of the Church, his use of the peasants and the outcasts were thought to be vulgar and sacrilegious, too dark and menacing for display in the Church.He also refused to use existing works of art for his inspiration, instead choosing real life subjects, and did not work from sketches, but used the back of his brush directly on the canvas to outline his faces. While he got a lot of bad attention for this Caravaggios work was not negative his aim was to restore full coporeal density to the unstable figures of Mannerism. (Bazin 30) Caravaggios life was as tempestuous as many of his paintings and he was involved in several brawls. This, no doubt, contributed to his list of enemies who gave less than generous accounts of his life.Their mission almost succeeded as his hold did not reach the heights of popularity other artists achieved until the 20th Century, even though certain artists were aware of his works and used his influence. In 1606 he killed a young man, and was forced to flee his rich allies of Rome. Arriving in Naples, he was protected by the Colonna family, but after several incidents was forced to flee to Malta and then to Sicily. An attempt was made on his life in 1608 when he returned to Naples, but finally it was a fever that reportedly killed him in 1610.Caravaggio was never out of work, and wherever he went his paintings were generally highly prized. Despite his short career, and the lack of an official school, his influence was certainly felt, even if primarily in the rest of Europe and not his fatherland of Italy. His influence was harvested instead in Spain, and in Flanders and Holland. (Conti 42) It is also true that this influence pushed the boundaries of time. Caravaggios direct influence was brief, though intense, and was confined to his immediate followers, many of them foreign-born, who worked in Rome.But the indirect consequences of his work for European art were far reaching and incalculable. (Kitson 41) The revival of interest in his works in the 20th Century shows his small existing collection of fifty paintings to be of equal caliber to any of the greats and his unique technique can be said to have influenced even modern art. . . . in the Cicerone (Jacob Burckhardt) categorized Italian painting of the age of Rubens, from the Carracci and Caravaggio onwards, not as Baroque but as modern, partly ec lectic, partly naturalistic. (Turner 36)Of all the paintings Caravaggio created his religious ones are the most riveting. Allegorical and fascinating all at the same time, they teach us something about the subjects and ourselves. The people in Caravaggios paintings are bound unitedly by dramatic relationships which raise all the problems of life, grief and death. From his paintings there emerges a pessimistic impression of human destiny, and it was not surprising that Caravaggios art unresolved the way to that anxious exploration of the soul which attracted many of the painters of the seventeenth century.(Bazin 31) We dont see one of the greatest sacrifices in the world in Carr painting of Abraham Sacrificing Isaac. Instead we see a father pained at sacrificing his son, but determined to do it as Gods wish. As in many of Caravaggios paintings, the moment in time caught on canvas displays a moment of emotional anguish or change, and together with his use of shadows and light, the subjects become not just the characters of a story, but real life human beings. There are no halos. No storm clouds representing Gods watching eye.Just a man about to do the unbelievable to his son, who is suddenly given an alternative where before there was none. It is heart wrenching and very effective. Caravaggio abandoned many of the rules and guidelines of the highly successful artists of the Renaissance, whose master(prenominal) focus was the adoration and idolization of the human and the religious experience. This was not out of disrespect as was thought at the time, but instead was his attempt to advance what had been started by these great masters.Yet this caused many to reject his art, while young artists of the time thrived on his art revolution. Although, they never made as much direct hop on as he had himself, they did continue to use aspects of his art, picking and choosing the more forgiving and less controversial use of light and dark, while at the same time bypas sing, or conveniently forgetting, probably the most important focus for the artist himself, that of the use of the ordinary. Probably one of the most effective and realistic paintings of his career was the hesitancy of Saint Thomas.In this painting, all of the features we attribute to Caravaggio are in evidence. Jesus stands to the left of the painting while three old men, Thomas in the foreground, look at the future saint put his finger in the wound in Jesus side. At the risk of putting too modern a burnish on his work, one could almost say that Caravaggio was the inventor of the anti-hero in religious art . . . Christ and Saints are dressed in drab clothes . . (they are) regretful working men who would not stand out in a crowd . . .Ordinary people press around them in defiance of the Counter-Reformation doctrine that lay people could only approach God through the intermediary of the clergy. (Kitson 101) All three men are old, Thomas coat is torn at the articulatio humeri and the re is an expression of amazed incredulity on each of the faces. Caravaggios use of light and dark makes the wrinkles on their foreheads stand out all the more. This is an image of the disciples that people never saw before. Even the expression on Jesus face is captivating and completely endearing as he guides the doubting gift of Thomas to his wound.The light comes from an unseen point to the left off-canvas and highlights the foreheads, the torn shoulder fabric and the exposed torso of Jesus. There is hardly a better recitation of the use of light and shadow or the use of the ordinary man as the subject matter. The use of light in this case draws the eye towards the most important parts of the painting, the parts that tell the story. The use of light and shadow also show Thomas progressing from the shadows of doubt into the light of faith and belief he is further out of the shadows than the other two, a symbolic, yet very natural, move towards illumination.What (Caravaggio) exce ls in is truth to the physical and psychological facts of a situation . . . an insistence on incidental details . . . which corresponds to the way the eye notices small things in moments of crisis. (Kitson 101) Without a doubt, Caravaggios burst onto the art scene in 1600 caused a rippling effect throughout the art world. The naturalism of Caravaggio which was to have momentous consequences for the whole of European painting, was the first great liberating force in Baroque art. (Martin 41) Artwork that was highly sought-after(a) after and appreciated in his lifetime, yet with a personality that was difficult to get along with, he was an enigmatic character with a trenchant for trouble. His mordant and early death in 1610 was followed by an equally early dissipation of his influence and descent into ignominy in his own country Very soon, what had been started by Caravaggio was credited to others, and for over 400 years, his influence was seen but not heard.With the visual and symbo lic impact of strong light and deep shadows, the modern art scene seeks to exemplify the great works of Caravaggio, a motif which he started all those years ago. And in todays world it is in little doubt that the use of everyday culture and life is far more interesting a subject than that of the higher unknown. Caravaggios genius is in little doubt, and even though it took a little while for his appreciation to be felt again on a large level, it is comforting to know that the boundaries of art were pushed at a time when the world was recovering from the Renaissance.Though art was cultivated to a high level during that period, the elite still had something to learn from the everyday man, and understating something in a painting, as Caravaggio did, could have far more of an impact in the long term. Caravaggio pushed the boundaries on a snobbish world and presented us with the gritty truth. His own life was a series of light periods and dark ones, and to this day his eccentricities hav e preserved his right as one of the greatest artists of the Baroque era, indeed of all time.Works Cited Conti, Flavio. How to avow Baroque Art. Italy Macdonald Educational Ltd. , 1978. Bazin, Germain. Baroque and Rococo. overbold York Thames and Hudson Ltd. , 1998. Martin, John Rupert. Style and Civilization Baroque. London Penguin Books, 1989. Turner, Jane (ed. ). From Renaissance to Impressionism(The Grove Dictionary of Art). New York St. Martins Press, 2000. Kitson, Michael. The Age of Baroque. New York McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966. Wikipedia Web Site Caravaggio Search.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
didactics Economy Mountainous Politicians, countries and ideologies from any everyplace the world have been separate for years between what they should follow and believe. Countries argue over which policies should be adopted been the economists fundamental question. What would life be like if the country you lived in targeted equality- to live in a country w here all tribe are equal, all are treated the corresponding, and all are one? People desire to live in a place where social class is not an issue and money, food shortage, monthly bills, and shelter is nothing you have to worry some.The command scrimping provides survival, mensurate in work, stability, equality and care and economic resources for all its members, young, sick, disabled, and the old. The command economy is much stable then the market economy. One reason command economy is more efficient than a market economy is because the command economy focuses on providing survival for its people. All residents are pr ovided with the basic needs for survival much(prenominal) as housing, jobs, education, clothing, food etc. The government provides all the needs.There is no worry about bills, losing jobs, food shortage. In a market economy, you are not guaranteed all this, sure you are abandoned well farthere but you are not guaranteed a job. What happens to those in need of a job? They arent given a job. In a market economy you are on your own. Karl Marx, a German philosopher, formed the command economy. In a market economy, you are constantly competing for survival. Whereas the command economy- you are guaranteed survival. The government provides all your basic needs.According to Marx, Disadvantage of a pure market economy cannot provide security to those who, because of sickness or age, cannot be economically productive. The bottom line is that the government of a market economy does not imply support to its residents. An older couple is not life story under the governments wing, but the in surance and money they have saved over the ages. The market economy has no interest for providing public estimables and services, such as national defense says, Marx. Another reason the command economy is better than the market economy is because the command economy fosters what the thespians produce.According to Marx, The definition of value its value is the amount of labor needed to produce and sustain labor power or it is the amount of labor needed to produce and sustain labor-power. ascendance economies take plume into what the workers produce. A product can be worth nothing, but it is worth much more as opposed to how much the worker has worked to produce the product. The government is in charge of producing the number of goods making sure that no money is wasted, and if it is, it is done correctly. The command economy has been successful as far as funding money.The command economy is very stable and will never have sudden depressions or financial crisis. In the late 18 00s the get unitedly States struggled with government ruling. For example, The join States had little control over the economy in the early 1900s which lead to one of Americas most devastating historic event, The Great Depression. The market economy tends to multiply the wealth of a nation much quicker due to evolution while the command economy plans the completed money making process, which has proved to be more beneficial.The command economy, as I mentioned earlier is in charge of its production and the demand of the consumer. For example, the government owns the companies in a command economy so moving production to a different area is no problem because the government is capable of doing it quickly as opposed to the market economy. In a market economy there are different owners and different regulations to each area. The value of the worker is always cherished in a command economy. Equality is a very strong component to the command economy.The government tries to eliminate all property and distribute its good equally. If done correctly no one is in poverty and no one is wealthier than the other. Marx explains, The workers are selling to an abstract capacity to labor, and because of this, the capitalist is able to sour them by only paying labor-powers value. This means that the worker is paid only by the work the worker has accomplished. For example, all residents are paid the same wage for the same amount of work that is done. The command economy also shares the same religion.This way government and the church are able to work together unlike the market economy where the government and the church are always on the different sides. The government also provides education for all of its residents. All of its people are educated at the same level. Equality is a strong component to the command economy. The care and economic resources are also a bear-sized deal to the command economy. No other economy provides such resource. The market economy does not p rovide full coverage after you are uneffective to work. You have to save money for retirement-that comes from your pocket.In a command economy you are guaranteed care and economic resources to sustain survival even if you are not shortly working- the government will have you under its wing. The command economy is much more efficient then the market economy. Residents are worry-free when it comes to resources of survival. The government also takes pride into the workers work and eliminates social classes to create equality amongst the residents. It is a stable economy and provides care for its residents. The command economy is more efficient then the market economy.Command EconomyRecently, over this summer there has been hundreds of children who have illegally entered the United States from Central and South America. They snuck here because a lot of their parents sent them here in search off much safer life with more opportunity ahead of them instead of being under a gruesome govern ment control over in there home country.I believe they should be sent back to their country because, these kids could potentially be a liar and or a scourge to our countries safety, and it is unconstitutional to make exceptions for anyone that doesnt bide by the law, especially if theyre not a United States citizen, that entered the U. S illegally. Unfortunately, no matter how bad any kid couldve had it in a South American country, we ultimately can not trust there word because nobodys word is just completely reliable, they could be lying and be someone completely different then what theyre telling us whether they are a kid or not.Without undeniable deduction that they really did come here to escape their country, then we have too assume theyre lying in order to ensure the safety to our fellow American citizens. Furthermore, even If they have proof that they really did come to our country seeking help and opportunity, they still would have to go through the Immolation and citizens hip gaining process Just like everyone else who has and wants to migrate too the United States to become a citizen.Therefore to sum It up, there may be many kids who want and need help that came here from their troubled country, but we as a country can not put ourselves In danger as a whole for people from somewhere else. America has their own problems to worry about and exceptions can not and should not be made for people who could be potential threats to our country.
Friday, May 24, 2019
I have decided to produce a compact disc called Music 2 revise by, a poster and leaflet promoting the product for my media studies practical production. I go away be working solo on this product.I am going to produce a CD, which ordain apply music that hopefully helps pot revise. I have decided to do this because of personal preference to revise whilst listening to music, a large majority of people have also told me they revise better whilst listening to music and because of a current gap in the market for my CD.A lot of considerations need to be taken into account including the following layout and design (both of the CD itself and the adverts) use of language as this is major when marketing and promoting the product to a specific audience and media technologies. I will also need to look at media audiences, representation and the value and ideology. These will make it clear who the product is going to be aimed at and how the values of the product imply the representations offer ed.I will think of various ideas for the CD and adverts and finally construct one stainless idea for the CD and two weaken ideas for the posters that will be aimed at varied purpose audiences. It is vital to obtain the correct point audience, as the audience should see clearly that the CD is aimed at them.To obtain a clear idea of the target audience I will carry out look into. The research will include a aspect of whether people like listening to music whilst revising, what music people would like to revise to and the age of the interviewed. I will also try to carry the research out on other similar CDs and of varied people.The CD will obviously be aimed at people who revise. Im going to find the specific target audience from my research Ill carry out, collect and analyse. Once I have found the target audience I can plan where to advertise it. The target gender does non matter as both staminate and female revise. The realistic possible age of the audience will be school pup ils or college scholarly persons. Therefore magazines such as more and bliss will be perfect for female school students and for female college students magazines such as vogue and. The male college students be likely to read FHM and Front. These are fashion and lifestyle genre magazines and possibly even football magazines such as 442. The male school student targeted magazines will be in truth difficult to distinguish. This is because there does not seem to be any specific magazines for the age group of fourteen to sixteen at first look. I will carry out more research into what male school students that age read and include it as a straits in my survey.The CD and adverts will need to be top quality to gain maximum expo sealed and will be advertised in many an(prenominal) contrasting formats as possible although remaining realistic by placing it in appropriate media texts viewed by people who are likely to be interested in the CD.The initial design for CD will be a very colourfu l and period looking CD. It may even have connotations with a lava lamp, which is apprehension to be in fashion and used for calming and relaxation. This is because most people find revising tedious and boring so the colourful design and flowing looking CD may unconsciously denote to the audience that revising will flow along and actually be more enjoyable. The music will be in a certain genre that consists of relaxed and chilled out music in order to calm and relax the listener.The equipment I will be apply is a PC equipped with Adobe Photoshop to design and produce my products. The Posters and CD will be printed out on a laser printer and very good paper that is most appropriate for the task. This will be important as the consumer always expects and wants good quality.The potential problems I may face are time restrictions, availability of equipment, collecting and analysing the research and also carrying it out over a varied age groups and the music chosen, is what consumers a ssume to be popular at this moment in time, might soon not be.To overcome these potential problems I will take action to make sure they do not affect my work.I will carefully plan what I will do stage-by-stage to overcome any possibility of the product not being finished in time. I will also make sure the equipment is readily available in abundance so the action plan I will make will not be disrupted. The research that is going to be carried out will be taken precisely and analysed carefully to be sure there are no data anomalies.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
They say a house is not a groundwork until it is filled with the laughter and noise of the family living in it. The house I grew up in was just a simple wooden house. It had all the fundamentals that made it a house such as the rooms and furniture. I remember that my favorite room in the house was the kitchen.The kitchen for me is what made my family house a beautiful home. I remember how the kitchen always smelled of a mixture of brewed coffee and bacon fresh homo thing in the morning. I did not need an alarm time during those summer months out of school.The freshly cooked bacon and smell of hot bread coming out of the oven always got everyone out of bed early. I would always be the first of my siblings in the kitchen, ready and willing to set the breakfast table. As the family sat gathered around to eat, we would tell stories about how we planned to spend the day.After the meal, our father would production line us up by the door before he left and give us our candy money for t he day. He was a kind man my father. He always smelled like soap and coffee even hours after the meal.My house is a beautiful home. It has everything that is expected. I have a loving father, a responsible mother, and siblings who I continue to grow with to adulthood. What more can I ask for?Questions and Answers1. What was your dominant impression?The dominant impression I wanted to enrapture in this paper is the early memory of my childhood and those simple times when my family shared everything we did together. I also wanted to give the reader a splendid description of how my family was and the simple joys we shared like having an early morning breakfast.2. Weakness in my assignment?I wish I had a higher allowable word count so that I could be more descriptive and further enhance the use of the 5 senses of my reader as my narration progresses. I also think that I have a problem in the subject verb agreement in a portion of the essay.3. Strengths in my assignment I am proud of? I am proud of the way I was able to relate a simple childhood experience and enhance it into a wonderful memory of the home I grew up in for whoever might read my essay.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Which is more important in explaining the public support for Chartism frugal circumstances, or the tradition of radical politics?To explain the rise of the chartist political move and the public support it received we need to consider the devil main bestow factor ins at the time. Historians like Asa Briggs, W.W. Rostow and Gareth Steadman-Jones take differing intellections on which was the most important explanation for the dramatic rise in public support for the chartist movement. Briggs agreed with an economical based reason and Steadman-Jones agreed with the radical new policies that Chartism offered being the main reason for the growth in support for the movement. This essay will explore these two views and try to identify which is the most important.There is evidence of early political reformers dating back to the 1740s, all wanting universal male suffrage and umteen of them agreed with parts of the charter. But, due to the French revolution in 1789 and the ongoing co ntend between France and Britain, political change was resisted in case any of these events were repeated. The war had left Britain facing harsh economic circumstances and deep political divides.When Chartism was at its height economic issues were a major problem throughout the lamentable and working physical bodyes. These economic circumstances were a major factor in gaining support for the chartist movement. W.W. Rostow studied this connection to see whether this was a reoccurring theme. He gather evidence to argue that economic problems caused tension in the lower and working classes. When economic pressures were low the tensions felt by the lower and working classes were low. This is shown in excogitation 17 graph of social tension 1790-1850 (Stevenson. J. (1978) Longman Atlas of Modern British History, London, Longman p.159).picLooking at the graph it shows well the peaks and troughs of the economic downturns fitted in with the protests for parliamentary reforms and the pea ks of chartist activities. One such parliamentary reform was the national petition of 1842 ..your petitioners can produce evidence of the gradual decline of wages, at the same time that the ceaseless increase of national burdens (Parliamentary debates (1842) third series, vol. 1xii, cols. 1376 1381). This statement shows that economic conditions were crucial to the public support of Chartism as so many of the working class were seen as distressing and in poverty. The cost of living and food increased whilst wages stayed low causing poverty and in turn Ill health and starvation. Dorothy Thompsons view of the support for Chartism was why the British workers responded to hunger by forming a nationwide movement around a political programme. (Thompson, 1971. P11-12). This view of Thompsons all the way links together both the economic situation and the increase of radical political ideas suggesting that the economy might have been struggling at the time just the main support for Char tism was rooted in the deeper political issues that were effecting Britain at the time.Gareth Steadman-Jones was in agreement with Dorothy Thompson as he saw Chartisms support as a political solution and saw Chartism as a continuation of radical political ideas from previous years. ..a particular political vocabulary must convey a practicable hope of a general alternative.. (Steadman-Jones, 1983, p.96). The Chartists used a political vocabulary which was easier for the poorly educated and working class to interpret parcel gain more attention and mass support across the country. The working classes were hearing solutions for their problems and liked the idea of change for the better. The general feel of the working class was expressed in the chartist newspaper the morning chronicle we require justice before charity. (Morning Chronicle may 3rd 1842). This was taken from a banner in the crowd of supporters. The speaker in the extract reflects the sentiment of the banner and the feelin g of the crowd at the rally. This shows how political motivations were a major factor in the growth of Chartism and how the chartists used public feeling to garner support.In conclusion to explain the growth and mass support for Chartism and the rise of the political movement which gripped the nation A mix of both economic problems combined with radical political ideas left a nation wanting change the Chartists used the economic situation to tailor support for their cause and increase the idea that political change would improve conditions for the working classes. Chartism would not have had the same effect without a combination of these 2 factors.ReferencesODay, R., Hardy, W., Marsh, G., Padley, S. And Perryman, L.A. (2011) reservation Sense Of The Arts, Milton Keynes, The Open University.Briggs, A. (ed.) (1959) Chartist Studies, London, Macmillan cited in Making Sense Of The Arts Resource Booklet 1, (2011) Milton Keynes, The Open University, P36.Stedman-Jones, G. (1983) cited in Making Sense Of The Arts Resource Booklet 1, (2011) Milton Keynes, The Open University, P37.Yeo, E. (1982) cited in Making Sense Of The Arts Resource Booklet 1, (2011) Milton Keynes, The Open University, P38.Thompson, D. (1984) cited in Making Sense Of The Arts Resource Booklet 1, (2011) Milton Keynes, The Open University, P39.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 on April 20th. He was a news to an Austrian customs official who was at the age of 52 at Hitlers birth. His convey was called Alois Schickelgruber Hitler and his mother who was a third wife of his father was called Klara Poelzi.Both were from discredit Austria. Hitler was resentful and moody he was never contented with anything he was argumentative and short tempered. In fact he was very hostile to his father who was an disdainful but greatly attracted to his mother who was very hard working.His mothers death of cancer was a very big blow to the adolescent Hitler whom he adored very much in fact he went with a photo of his mum wherever he went. His mother was loving, caring and she always sided with Hitler whenever his fathers bitterness got the better of him. Hitler and his father always crossed swords when his father insisted that Hitler should become a civil servant Hitler wanted to be an artist.In school (Ellis J., 1945, 198) Hitler was unpopular and stayed aloof. He was an introvert and made very few friends.He was extremely lazy and performed dismally in school. In later years he claimed that history was his deary subject and that he performed very closely something that his teacher objected to. For example, the 1905s Hitlers final school report shown that in history results were rated only as qualified. Hitler was capable of performing well but never worked for it.When Hitler was only 13 years his father died and after that he dropped out of school as in that location was no strong influence to keep him in school. His mother supported him while he was in school though he performed poorly.Even after Hitlers father died he never stopped his romance of becoming an artist and after he left school for Vienna he started to pursue his dream although his mothers death shattered his life. He was affected psychologically by his mothers death of cancer. Those who were close to Hitler said that he veritable(a) spend hours gaz ing at the dead body of his mother and drawing the sketches of it.He had applied for a vacancy in Vienna so that he could pursue his mark of becoming an artist his application to the Vienna academy of art was rejected. At that time he had no job and money. In the meantime, he used to change post cards and clearing snow pathways in return for money. It is at this time that Hitlers mind became warped.He developed very strong animosity towards Jews. This was because the Jewish professor at Vienna academy rejected his work, secondly he blamed the Jewish doctor for not preventing the death of his mother and third because he thought that it was only the Jews who were rich and stayed in those beautiful houses on whose snow bound paths he cleared. His hatred of the Jews was known as anti-Semitism.For the atomic number 23 years he stayed in Vienna he referred this time as five year of hardship and misery in his book Mein Kampf he blamed his hardship and miseries to the Jews. In an attemp t to run away from his trouble, he tried to join Austrian army but he failed medically because of eating poor food and insufficiency of sleeping enough.According to the medical report he was too weak to carry weapons. This time he was leading a life of hand to mouth. He did on occasion odd jobs and hawking the sketches he drawn in the town.Hitler compensated for the frustrations of his bachelor life miseries by going to the cheap cafes where he made his political harangues on his dreams of a Greater Ger legion(predicate) to anyone who would listen to him. (Ellis J., 1945, 220)While still in Vienna, he acquired his first education in politics by learning to the highest degree the Christian complaisant mayors demagogical techniques. It was at this time that he perfected his sort obsessive ness in anti-Semitism. He accused the Jews of having a conspiracy to put down the German nation and the purity of the creative Aryan raceHitler left Vienna for Munich in May 1913 and when in th e following year the war broke out he joined the 16th barbarian infantry regiment where he served as a dispatch runner. Here he be to be an able and to brave soldier. He even won the iron cross title for bravely though he never rose beyond the rank of lance corporal.Before the end of the First World War he was wounded twice forcing him to a hospital bed in Pomerania where he spent three months recuperating.After the November 18th abortive German revolution, Hitler became furious with age after the Germanys military was defeated, he strongly believed he was the fit one to fork over his ravaged and humiliated nations from the hell of troubles it inherited from the Versailles treaty from Jews and Bolsheviks.In 1924 Hitler said in a written document that he was fortunate to live at such(prenominal) a time. He was a regimental massager whose job was to convey messages to officers behind the front line and then back to the front line with new messages.This was a dangerous job and prov ed beyond reasonable doubts that he was a brave solder. His fellow compatriots were not amused by how Hitler kept on line-shooting over the achievements of the trench warfare. They also hated him because he did not mix with them well. Later he was promoted to the rank of a corporal but this promotion was not fair to him taking in to consideration that after those four years he was given that simple promotion.His colleagues thought that his inability to socialize and mix with others well and his inability to sell his ideas well to the rest of the members comprised his promotion. They argued that why should you promote someone who was not popular to his people. Though his colleagues never liked him he was much know by the officers for his bravely which worn him the Germanys highest award-Iron Cross. In total he received six medals which were due in his bravery.Up to 1918 (Gilbert M., The Second World War p 72) Hitler was still convinced that Germany was winning the war but the war c ost Hitler a lot in fact.In the same year just one month before the war ended, he was gas onrushed at type and this made him to be temporary blind though for a period of three months he as in hospital bed, when he received the news that Germany had lost out of the hospital and his eyesight restored. He felt deeply convinced that Germany was defeated simply because of the Jews.It never occurred to him that Germany would have surrendered he felt that the Jews back stabbed Germany and it was a perfect idea if they were eliminated in Germany. Hitler had been temporarily blind because of the mustard gas attack he received in October 1918 in Belgium.While Hitler was recovering from the injuries he sustained in the war, the communities with the help from the Jews were trying to establish themselves and sell their ideas to Germany but their moves were abortive. They wanted to pep up Germany from capitalism to communism and from 9th November 1918 the socialists took control of the governme nt.After Germany had lost the war the monarchy system came to an end and it become a republic and a constitution was made a schedule for a president with political and military might.An choice was done and the Centrist government took over and it came to be called the Weimar Republic. The German government on June 28th 1919 sanctioned the treaty of Versailles. It stated that Germany was responsible for causing the first thus it was mandatory to pay the reparations to the allied powers or the victorious powers like Britain, France and Italy.The treaty was also required Germany to demilitarize the Rhineland, limit its army to only 100,000 army men and to control its military strength. These terms of the treaty were humiliating the Germans and they undermined the proper performance of the Germanys government. These despotic terms were used against liberating Germany from the humiliations caused by the treaty.Hitler especially used these terms as his campaign tool. He echoed the pain ing terms of the treaty and condemned it. By doing this, he was able to bounce behind a big mass of supporters. He believed that Germany was a great nation and was not a simple country that could be subjected to humiliations of such magnitudes.In 1923, Hitler sensing that Weimar government was on the verge of collapsing, General Ludendorff himself and the local nationalists tried to overthrow the Bavarian government. Hitler stormed in a bar at Munich and dismissd a pistol in to the ceiling he shouted out that he was the head of the new provisional government that would bring a revolution to the reed BerlinThinking he had already overthrown the government he marched with about three thousand men but met a very strong police fire that saw 16men dead. He was captured and arrested. In 1924, February 26 he was tried and he somehow succeeded in convincing his accusers that he was pursuing the right goal.He shouted express us guilty a thousand time over the goddess of the eternal gree t of history will smile and tear to pieces the state prosecutors submission and the courts verdict for she acquits us(Morrow J., 1663 234)Hitler was convicted and sentenced to five years in prison in Landsbergis fortress and nine months later he was released. He advanced his stereotyped and prejudiced views against Jews. The experience he acquired from the abortive power overturn transformed him from being unskilled adventurer to a wise politician.He realized that it is not a wise idea to face gun nozzles of the army unless he was in command. He also comes to know that Germany was not to be revolutionized through unlawful and healthy seizure of the ruling government but by the alteration of the Weimers constitution. He began mobilizing the mass which had become disintegrated to push for changes in the government.He drafted the fellowships pronunciamento which comprised of twenty five points and on 24th February read the content to his followers .Those who foreign him and his id eas were crushed with whips and rubber truncheons by his royal supporters.Hitler was eloquent and new how to cook the population by employing his propagandas or what can be referred to as the demagogical skills, in his draft he openly criticized the Versailles treaty and leveled his anger on Jews.When Hitler was released from prison having only served for only nine months, he resolved using diplomatic means to seize power. He called for Germany to stand up to the yoke of Jews and communists and support an conglomerate that would rule them for a thousand years. In 1929, the wall stock exchange collapsed, all the external grants and loans dried up and all the industrial production flopped and many people were rendered jobless.After the elections that were held (Adreas H, 1982 91) Hitlers party scooped 18% of the votes in 1930 and after two years Hitler won 30% of the votes as a president. In 1932 July the Nazi party which was the biggest than others did not get the majority.Hitler w anted to be the chancellor but was given the post of a vice chancellor in the government which was formed by different parties but he rejected. After that a deal was reached which saw him becoming the chancellor in 1933. After Paul von Hindenburg who had beaten him in the election died (Beevor A., 2002 137)Hitler was agreed through a consensus to succeed Hindenburg. After Hitler took over he suppressed all the other political parties and become a dictator. With the improving thrift he was able to advance his ideas he even build an industrial machine as a preparation for war. By 1937, he was ready to pass his ever dreamt of plans as were outlined in his book Mein Kampf.Those who objected to his master plans were thrown out of the way. In 1935, he refused to stick to the terms of the Versailles treaty and started rearming by recruiting five times contrary to the agreement and he pushed Britain to let him increase his naval base. A year later he marched on to Rhineland which was supp osed to be demilitarized. He met no resistance from the allied powers. Afterward, Luftwaffe was build. This re-armament created jobs and economic growth.According to (Adreas H. 1982 78) Hitler forced France and Britain to break the Munich agreement and led to the eventual Czechoslovakia dismantlement in 1939. He executed the Jews and political extremists who opposed his ideas. In 1939, September 1st he invaded Poland.He applied his new war strategy which was called blitzkrieg which involved short quick attacks, fast mobile fit out and ground men to wipe anything that might have been left by the bombs. Poland was defeated in less than a month. In 1941, he dishonored the non-aggression pact which he had signed with the Soviet Union.This made him to have two front wars. In December the same year, USA joined the war against him to join hold with the allies. In 1944, the allies had greatly advanced. They bombed Germany cities and crushed Germanys friend-Italy.The war turned sour on hi s side because his soldiers started disobeying him and even mutinied. Also when his chosen lieutenants saw that they were about to be defeated, they started going against Hitlers wishes although his dream of wiping European Jews had been realized. He had already killed 2/3 of the total Jewish population.When he sensed defeat, he killed himself on 1945 April 30th. Later, Eva Brawn his wife who was a long time mistress and by then newly married committed suicide to follow his husband. Hitler committed suicide by shooting himself in the mouth with a pistol. Their bodies were taken to the Reich Chancellery Gardens where they were cremated in petrol fire. His death marked the end of unrealized legacy of Germanic Reich.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Guns are a double-edged sword when it comes down to it. Guns provide many an(prenominal) people the ability to feel safe and protected, while other guns are constant reminder that nearly freedoms are mobn too far. Guns privileges are abused, misused, and mistreated. Young people glorify toting weapons analogous its a new fashion statement. Missing the fact, that what in reality is causing uproar and panic amongst everyone else. That is why I feel like guns should not be allowed on college campuses.Asking a young person to take the responsibility of not only carrying but carrying a gun around on a college campus is a lot to ask of a college aged young adult. Most people in college struggle with jealous a full-course load, let alone walking with a gun, or the fact that someone unbeknownst to them could be carrying an automatic weapon. The theory is not brilliant if a pip occurs we should let the proper authorities sell it, in a professional manner in which they are paid to do so . Law enforcement is to a greater extent than just capable of doing their business sector, in a professional sense. It makes sense for police to patrol all passim a college campus to keep peace. Asking an 18- 24 year old who is still mentally and emotionally adjusting to flavor and new experiences is too much.College campuses are actually safer than the surrounding communities where an actual 93% of crimes that occur against college students take place. That in it of itself is an eye opener to those for gun on college campuses. College campuses are a safe heaven, where students can be at ease, and be at peace knowing that they are protected 24/7. Lawmakers should take joy as well. Campus police is actually doing whats asked of them and doing it above and beyond. Police are doing what is asked of them. Now imagine if a student or even faculty member such as a teacher with no crisis dressing is asked to respond to an emergency situation? Many if not most would panic and not how t o respond to the situation at hand. Situations could lead to disaster, so why not leave that to the professionals.Clearly not having guns on college campuses has worked so far. Why would society decide to change that now? The negatives outweigh the good in every facet. Yes like with anything there are positives, but those positives are few and far between. Students and faculty arent trained to sell the pressures and stress that come with dealing with carrying a loaded weapon on campus. Law Enforcement does a heck of a job, in protecting all persons on campuses now. By switching that up, you are making police officers job even way more difficult, asking them to distinguish in crisis situations who and who isnt the culprit. Making them find out who has the gun? Guns should be allowed on college campuses period.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Comparing Rich Points Understanding Nipponese Langua tillage Research thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for graduation with Research Distinction in Nipponese in the part of East Asian Languages & Literature at The Ohio State University by Andrew Gaddis The Ohio State University March 2012 Project adviser Professor James M. Unger, Department of East Asian Language and Literature 1 1. Introduction In this thesis, I attempt to show the lingual and non- lingual conducts that atomic number 18 assemble prominently through turn up Nipponese society. This writing is divided into deuce major parts.The first is devoted to describing the bump of the non factual concept LEARNING IS A move around in the linguistic behavior of Japan. The sec describes how the same simileical concept is in addition found through appear the non-linguistic behavior of the Japanese culture. Based on Lakoff and Johnsons (1979) worldwide theory of meanspiriteding, this paper ex amines a particular illustrate of the carnal intimacyship amid Japanese culture and terminology in detail, namely the Sino-Japanese noun doo channel, commission ? and native noun miti. Lakoff and Johnson argue convincingly that metaphors atomic number 18 non just literary or poetic purposes of oral communication separate from ordinary language use.Metaphorical relations, in their view, atomic number 18 essential to how speakers of a language deal with meanings. unmatched of their place workouts is the locomote metaphor go outn in such incline curses as We arrived at a polish and I dont think our relationship is going anywhere. For Lakoff and Johnson, such sentences illustrate the metaphors stemmaS ARE excursionS and need intercourse IS A expedition. Sino-Japanese doo is frequently used as a suffix in nouns with meanings that connote a sacred panache of life or re familiariseation, or at least some method of self-cultivation. Since the character ? s customarily glossed miti, this native noun interc cohereeablely has that metaphorical connotation. This character was adopted from China by way of the Korean peninsula in 2 the 1st millennium CE (Frellesvig 2010), where it long had a strong metaphorical connotation (spiritual path or way) already in the kindics of the 1st millennium BCE, just to the highest degree notably the Daodejing of Laozi . Today, we see its widespread use in non-Daoist mise en scenes. I argue that these observations show that the underlying metaphor LEARNING IS A move is curiously robust in Japan language life (gengo seikatu . By comparing Japanese doo and miti road, path with incline move, we find mistakableities and divergences that provide be understood in condition of the concepts languaculture and deep establishs introduced by Michael Agar in his book Language Shock. As I leave alone discuss in detail in air division 4, Agar argues (1) that language use rout outnot be understoo d outside the pagan context in which it is used, and (2) that clamant differences in the way two languacultures talk somewhat the same or similar real-world incidents and levelts reveal how they argon structured.Human beings suck up much in common any everyplace the world, so similarities in languacultures be legion(predicate) and expected, at least for people living in similar ecological circumstances. Rich points stand out precisely because they authorize unexpectedly when one compares two languacultures. By comparing Japanese doo and miti with English journey in Lakoff and Johnsons adept, I propose to show that the journey metaphor is a locus of an signifi toilettet rich point found within the two languacultures. I turn to the topic of journeys in the second part of the paper (Section 5).Pilgrimages has long had play a signifi hatfult role in Japanese religious intrust. By the conviction of the Edo effect, a humankind was expected to cultivate achievements in medicine, poetry, the tea ceremony, music, the hold fast to drum, the noh dance, etiquette, the 3 appreciation of craft work, arithmetic, calculation, literary composition, reading and writing (Totman 1993,186). Once one has acquired considerable scientific discipline in the art of pursuit, they would often go on a pilgrimage to mulct much some the art and study the methods used in distant places. For this intellect, pilgrimages were an important education experience for the Japanese people.Here, I argue that the concept of LEARNING IS A JOURNEY exists even in the non-linguistic behavioral context. In the barricade of the section, I argue that LEARNING IS A JOURNEY is a common concept to both the linguistic do principal(prenominal) and the non-linguistic domain of Japanese languaculture. I attempt to prove that the commonality found in the two domains is not due to a cause-and-effect relationship, where one domain causes the other. Instead, I suggest that both of these be haviors have their origins from a common curry of historical circumstances, namely the meeting of Chinese culture, Buddhism and Daoism.I argue that the impact of Buddhism and Daoism on Japanese intellectual thought have played a bigger role in shaping this abstract metaphor that are prominently seen in both the linguistic and non-linguist domains of Japanese culture. 2. Theory of metaphor For most people, metaphorical musings are assumed to be extensions of ordinary language, that is, instances of language outside of conventional usage mean to represent or suggest non- literal error meaning. For this intellectual, metaphor is seen as extraordinarya device of the literary or poetic imagination. Opposing this view, 4Lakoff and Johnson argue that metaphor is pervasive in everyday language, thought, and action. To understand metaphor, one must(prenominal) first identify its source. Lakoff and Johnson claim that metaphor originates in prelinguistic thought, not in language per se . Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Thus, our conceptual remains plays a central role in defining our notions of reality. Since we are not consciously aware of most of the actions we do everyday, distinguishing the different components of our conceptual outline is by no means straightforward.However, because communication is based on the same conceptual system that we use in thinking and acting, we can figure out just what that system is like through linguistic analyses. To give a concrete drill, Lakoff and Johnson start off with the concept ARGUMENT and the conceptual metaphor ARGUMENT IS WAR. The following is a list of sentences that they cite to illustrate this point ARGUMENT IS WAR Your claims are indefensible. He attacked every weak point in my business. His criticisms were serious on target. Ive never won an argument with him. You disagree? Okay, shoot (Lakoff & Johnson 1979, 4) 5Notice that these s entences are not just openly rough war that the actions mentioned in the sentences only beat instinct in relation to the concept of war. Since argument is an attempt to persuade soulfulness of something or to accept a particular conclusion, we can conceive of arguments as something to win or lose. We fend for our position and strategize a way to attack our opponents claims. Though a physical employment does not urinate place, a verbal one does, and umpteen of the actions we perform in an argument weigh this. This instance well illustrates how metaphor pervades not just language but thought and action as well.The full significance of this theory does not come into sight when smellinging at a single language and its ambient culture. Try to imagine a culture where arguments are not viewed in terms or war, where no one wins or loses, or where there is no sense of attacking or defending. Imagine a culture where admit confrontation is shunned, where people are extremely cau tious not to disprove the opinions of others, where the participants social statuses determine the amount of force that leave behind be considered as appropriate in the conversation, and go-betweens are used to solve most conflicts.In such a culture, people would, according to Lakoff and Johnson, view, experience, perform, and talk around the arguments differently. But the people of our culture might not see them as arguing at all, because what they are doing does not fit our metaphorical understanding of what constitutes arguing. This is how a metaphorical concept structures what we do and how we experience it. It is not that arguments are a subspecies of war in any metaphysical sense. It is rather there is a type of conversation that, in English-speaking culture, is 6 viewed, experienced, performed, and talked about in terms of war.The concept is metaphorically structured, the activity is metaphorically structured, and, consequently, the language is metaphorically structured. Al though metaphor plays a central role in structuring language, there is nevertheless an extensive range of concepts that are not comprehended with the use of metaphor, which often is referred to literal language. For example, the sentence The apple fell on rawtons head can be deployed in a completely literal way. It could be an example sentence in an academic paper on generative syntax, or a sentence in a childs book explaining a picture.But in our language, one is more possible to encounter this sentence in a context in which it is freighted with metaphorical meaning. It is typically deployed in contexts where the speaker wants to let the tender endure that s/he sees a germane(predicate) comparison between something they have either observed or cognize about and beliefs they share about the invention and discovery. The sentence may be used in a humorous or dry way (making fun of someone suddenly realizing something), or a dramatic, serious way (praising someone with a proverb ial reference).By comparing our abstractions (ideas, emotions, etc. ) to what can be physically experienced, we can get a hold on them in take a leaker terms. The JOURNEY metaphor is ordinarily used in legion(predicate) languages. In English, we have many expressions where the concept of bed is often described as that of a journey, which will be referred to as LOVE IS A JOURNEY metaphor. For example, take a look at the following common expressions 7 Look how far weve come. Were at a crossroads. Well just have to go our separate ways. We cant turn back now. I dont think this relationship is going anywhere.Where are we? Were stuck. Its been a long, bumpy road. This relationship is a dead-end track. Were just gyrate our wheels. Weve gotten off the track. (Lakoff & Johnson 1979, 44) In every case, love is understood in terms of a journey. It is clear that the lovers are the travellers, and the relationship is the vehicle. The purpose of the journey is for the travelers to reach a destination, more precisely, for the lovers to accomplish their refinements of common interest. What the dead-end street and spinning wheels are alluding to are the difficulties in reaching that destination.The purpose of these expressions is to encourage the listener to draw an inference. crawfish the expression Where are we? for example. Outside of the love metaphor context, it is a simple question. The metaphorical context invites the listener to reflect on how things came to be the way they are, how they might have turned out differently, and what could be do now to 8 change them. By accepting the scenario of making a journey toward the consummation of love, we can comprehend the analogy used to reason the human relationship of love.To end the section on a similar note, it is sometimes said that English secondlanguage prentices have trouble with expressions like Were at a crossroads or its been a long, bumpy road. The likely reason for this is because the difficult part of getting language proficiency does not so much lie in the process of mastering the wording or grammar of a language, but mastering the metaphors typically used in the language. This is especially the case since dictionaries take only limited account of the metaphorical meaning of linguistic process and formulates.The problem is that ways of talking about the experience of love in English language are metaphorically absent in the scholarly persons language and culture. 1 in that locationfore, instruction to recognize the metaphorical relations in language is key not only to understanding the way the speakers of the language conceptualize the world but also to getting language proficiency. The concept is metaphorically structured, the activity is metaphorically structured, and, consequently, the language is metaphorically structured. 3. doo and miti? Much like in the English language, the JOURNEY metaphor is a frequently used concept in the Japanese language.Take a look at t he following examples of the LOVE 1 An idiom is a word or develop that is morphologically or syntactically irregular with respect to the language in which it occurs. Native speakers often have it away an expression is idiomatic when asked. Metaphors, on the other hand, often occur below the level of consciousness. 9 IS A JOURNEY metaphor in Japanese (1) a. koi no katamiti kippu love GEN one-way just the ticket One-way ticket to love b. koizi no yami loves pathway GEN darkness Love is blind c. miti naranu koi path will not love Illicit love affair d. huuhu no miti husband and wife GEN path marital values Again, in every case love is understood in terms of a journey. It is clear that the lovers are the travelers, and the relationship is the vehicle. It is noteworthy to mention, that the relationship can take various(a) forms of a vehicle in the journey. Notice that there 10 is no single consistent vehicle that the journey metaphors all use. In example (1a) the vehicle of the relationship is some fashion of public tran variance. Consider a situation when this expression is used.Given that this expression about a relationship is understood in terms of travel, the kind of reasoning evoked should generally reflect a situation where the lovers (travelers) are in a quickly progressing relationship (vehicle) to their goal of common interest (destination). The one-way ticket most likely implies that returning back to the start of the journey is not considered for the travellers, and that they are fast approaching their destination as if they were traveling by some mode of public transport. The rest of the examples, unlike (1a), do not specify the means of transportation for the travelers.For examples (1b) and (1c), this is because the purpose of the expression is to describe the impediments the travelers encounter in pursuing the destination. The literal translation of the two would be darkness of loves pathway, and path that will not lead to the destination o f love. What the darkness and mis hightail itd path are alluding to is the difficulties in reaching the destination, both of which implies that a change of action needs to be taken to successfully reach the destination. (1d) literally translates the path of the married yoke. This expression represents the ideal path a married couple should take. Take a look at the following for examples of the LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphor, which is also commonly found in both languages. (2) 11 a. zinsei yama ari tani ari life mountain exists valley exists Life has its ups and down b. ikiru miti die stern (vb) road The road of life c. senri no miti mo ippo kara thousand-mile GEN road FOC one-step ABL A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step Notice that the literal translation of these expressions in Japanese and English are highly idiomatic.This is why a word for word rendering of the expressions would seem unnatural. In example (2a), the lexical items yama mountain and tani vall ey are translated ups and downs. Knowing that this expression represents life as a enlighten of journey with obstacles to overcome, we can conjecture the logic behind this expression without much effort. A traveler would now and then encounter times of relative ease and difficulty throughout the journey. While walk of life up a mountain is a laborious task, walking down the mountain into the valley requires considerably less effort.What the metaphor suggests is that the experience of life is much like that. There are times of ups and downs, good and bad, easy and hard etc. Nevertheless, if the expression were to remain in its literal translation, life has its 12 mountains and valleys, it would not be too difficult for the English speaker to comprehend the message being communicated. Since LIFE IS A JOURNEY is a commonly used metaphor in the English language as well, the enormous amount of knowledge that is not explicitly provided will be understood from the knowledge of how life is understood in relation to a journey.It is not that the languages do not have expressions that are equivalent in meaning, but it is more that the lexical items used to construct a metaphorical expression in one language do not match the lexical items in the other. Therefore, even if the expression is uncommon to the hearer, given that it is a commonly used metaphor in the languages, an intelligent guess can be made to make sense of it all. The following is an example of the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY metaphor (3) gakumon ni oodoo nasi scholarship DAT royal-road non-existent There is no regal Road to learningBased on the meaning of this expression described in the Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, the phrase is a translation of the proverbial expression There is no violet Road to learning. This phrase is legendarily attributed to Euclid, who is said to have used it in reply to a kings communicate for an easier way to learn geometry. A Persian Royal Road actually existed it was a 1677-mile lon g passage stretching, in modern terms, from the center of Iran to northern Turkey. To get from the starting point to the end of the highway 13 is believed to have taken over 90 days on foot, but only a calendar week by horse (Herodotus 1889, 213).By metaphorizing the process of learning geometry as a lengthy journey, the claim that a Royal Road did not exist not only signified that there was no shortcut but also that even a king could not make one, as the Persian kings had made the Royal Road. It is interesting to note that despite long survival and overuse, the metaphor retains an appeal for speakers of many languages and is however used. counterbalance Sigmund Freud famously described dreams as Royal Road to the unconscious in The Interpretation of Dreams, 1889 1998. In the context of Japanese culture, however, there are many expressions where learning is understood in terms of a journey.The reason for this is because the metaphor LEARNING IS A JOURNEY is a more salient featur e in the Japanese language. The following are commonly used expressions of the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY metaphor in Japanese (4) a. manabi no miti o aruku learning GEN road ACC walk (vb) Walk the way of learning b. manabi no miti-annai learning GEN guidepost A guidepost of learning 14 c. manabi no sen-ri no miti learning GEN thousand-ri GEN road The thousand-ri way of learning d. manabi no miti ni wa owari wa nai learning GEN the way LOC glide by end TOP non-existent There is no end in the way of learning The examples in (4) shows that a metaphorical noun phrase ? path modified by learning can be used in the various expressions. In every case, learning is understood in terms of a journey, and it is clear that the learner is a traveler in pursuit of knowledge. The purpose of the journey is for the traveler to reach a desired destination, more specifically, acquiring knowledge. In these examples, learning relates to journey in the sense that the traveler will leave his or her know n environment and venture into an unknown place where new discoveries will be made.In example (4a) the traveler is selfpropelled. That is to say, the travelers volition is the vehicle. The expression is probably used in situations where the person using the phrase is still in the progress of acquiring knowledge. Example (4b) illustrates a situation where the learner (traveler) makes use of available resources to better(p) the impediments of reaching the destination (acquiring knowledge). For instance, a traveler will often make use of guideposts as a guide for reaching the desired destination. Similarly, the learner will often rely on teachers, books, 15 r the like to guide them to acquiring knowledge. (4c) illustrates a situation where acquiring knowledge is an arduous task, and it compares this difficulty of attaining knowledge to long distance travel. (4d) is a common expression saying that there is no end to learning. Again, we know that all of these expressions are metaphor ical because none of them would make sense literally. More examples are provided in (5) (5) a. zyoodoo accommodate road (the way) completing the path of becoming a Buddha b. zyuudoo gentleness road (the way) judo c, aiki syuutoku e no miti aiki scholarship -to GEN road (the way) The way to aikido acquisition According to the Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, zyoodoo is Buddhist terminology that refers to either the moment a Bodhisattva becomes a Buddha after completing certain 16 radiation diagrams and attains enlightenment, or the time Shakyamuni became enlightened sitting under the Bo tree. This Sino-Japanese term in its literal sense originally meant to attain the way. Zyoodoo is metaphorical inasmuch as it referred in the first instance to the historical Buddha but could then refer to someone else becoming a Buddha this was no doubt borrowed from a preexisting metaphor use in Chinese.In the case of judo, as shown in (5b), we know that this is in fact a native Japanese noun coined in t he Meiji period by the scholar Kano Jigoro (Watson 2008, xv). Before this coinage, this style of chip was referred to as zyuzyutsu. Which makes sense since martial arts terminology prior to the Meiji period generally used the suffix ? zyutu art, means, technique instead of the suffix ? doo. Zyuzyutsu was a brutal method of open handed combat that Kano matte up was too violent for the modern age. Thus, in the interest of safety and practicality, he turned it into a sport under the name judo.The new institution Kodokan that he opened in Tokyo was, in his eyes, a place where one is guided along a road to follow in life (Watson 2008, xvi). It must be the case that he utilize the suffix doo due to the fact that the metaphorical connotations it carried was appropriate for his philosophy2. The example in (5c) is a title of a book written by Kimura Tatsuo, a mathematics professor at the University of Tsukuba and an aikido enthusiast, about the art of aikido. Syuutoku e no miti generally means the road to acquiring. This phrase is often used to modify the nominal it follows.Thus, aiki syuutoku e no miti in its metaphorical sense means the road to gaining knowledge about aikido. 2 Many other traditional arts and martial arts employed the suffix doo (e. g. kendoo kendo, kyuudoo archery, sadoo tea ceremony, way of tea). 17 The reason for the many LEARNING IS A JOURNEY expressions arising in the Japanese language is attributed to an earlier influence from the Chinese classic Daodejing of Laozi. The Chinese word dao (road, way ? ) has long had strong metaphorical connotation of spiritual path or way. When the oanword and character were adopted in Japanese in the 1st millennium CE, along with them came the connotation. As stated earlier, learning is understood in part by the journey metaphor. Since this thought is crucial to the formation of the meaning, we see an abundance of words whose meanings are shaped by this metaphor. Take the native Japanese verb mitibiku to guide to lead to show the way, for example. It is a chemical compound word of ? miti and hiku to lead, pull. This word has departed from the literal meaning based on the meaning of components miti and hiku.We can see this from the following excerpt written by the Japanese poet, Yamanoue no Okura in the Manyoshu (6) moromoro no oomikami-tati hunanohe ni mitibiki moosi various NOM god PLUR prow LOC guide request Various gods, I request you to guide this ship by its prow The literal meaning based on the components of the word cannot be applied here however, the metaphorical extension of the meaning can be applied. According to the Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, the word has come to mean guide at least since the 8th 18 century, as we can tell from its use in the excerpt.The definition provided here is not the literal meaning, but the metaphorical. The fact that a metaphorical extension has been added to the literal meaning of the word, illustrates how a new metaphorical connotation may be incorporated into the original literal meaning of a word. In the case of , what probably happened was that the literal meaning it was originally associated with was bleached out over time, and took on the metaphorical meaning as its dominant meaning. Through these examples, we have seen that the journey metaphor has a significant role in the Japanese language. Since the expressions provided n this section are highly idiomatic, in most cases, a word for word rendering of the expressions may not intuitively make sense for the non-native speakers of Japanese. However, that does not take away the fact that the expressions in question surfaces from the same underlying metaphor. There are cases where both languages have an expression that serves the same purpose but the lexical matching is not kinda the same, and there are cases where lexical matchings will be nearly exact. On the other hand, we have also seen how it is possible for a metaphor to be more salient in one language than in the other.These examples illustrate just how a metaphor common to both languages can manifest itself differently. 4. Languacultures and Rich Points To better understand the similarities and differences of the journey metaphor used in the English and Japanese language, I would like to present the concepts 19 languaculture and rich points introduced by Michael Agar in his book Language Shock. Languaculture refers to the notion that a system of conventionalized symbols, sounds, gestures, or the like used by a particular community for communication cannot be understood without also knowing the conventional behaviors and beliefs of that community.Therefore, he argues, it is necessary to tie the concept of language and culture together whenever talking about language (Agar 1994, 60). Rich point refers to a moment when a person is at a languacultural interface and encounters a difference in the ways of communicating from his or her cultural assumptions3. Let us look at the study of junkie s by Agar to illustrate this example of rich points. Junkie is a term often used to refer to heroine addicts. During his two-year service in the U. S. popular Health Service, Agar worked to admirer treat heroin addicts.As a linguist, he started on a battle array of terms used by the addicts. What he found peculiar about the collection of terms was that even though they spoke the same language as he did, they made use of certain words that was unique to the junkies. For example, the process of frittering heroin would be described in different terms by junkies, as opposed to people with background in the medical field. The premedical student will most likely begin describing the process like the following, Well, you first take this hypodermic syringe, and then while the junkie will say, First, you take the works, and then According to Agar, the heroin users he met during his service used what is referred to as the works to inject heroin an assembly of the top of a baby pacifie r fastened onto an eyedropper with a needle slipped over its narrow end and a gasket of thread or paper to hold it tight. For this reason, the term works is 3 The term languaculture refers to the notion that the use of language differs with respect to its culture. Therefore, differences in language use also occur within a language by various other subcultures. 0 generally used in their culture to refer to the instrument used for injecting heroin. Now, suppose a context where two junkies are walking up the stairs in a building. Here is what they say (7) Say man, you got your works with you? Yeah, theyre right here in my pocket. Dont worry about it. (Agar 1994, 90) After learning what the term works refers to, an ordinary person may infer that this is a situation where a junkie inquires some other to make sure he has the necessary equipment for getting intoxicated. However, that was not the reason for their exchange.Instead, they were concerned about the possibility of an pronounc ement being in the proximity. Since the possession of this instrument justifies arrest, the junkies were concerned because they were confined in an enfold space an enclosed space does not have much room to run or get rid of the evidence. The reason for the exchange quoted above is that one junkie is worried about the possibility of an authority being in the proximity, and the other reassured that he could get rid of the instrument quickly if an authoritative figure were to appear, since they are right in his pocket.This physique of encounter that arises from ones languacultural assumptions is what Agar refers to rich points. Human beings have much in common all over the world, so similarities in languacultures are numerous and expected, at least for people living in similar ecological circumstances. However, occasionally an unexpected use of language will arise which reflects a difference between the underlying conceptual systems between the two languacultures. These glary differ ences found in the 21 way two languacultures talk about the same or similar real-world facts and events reveal how they are structured.Having established these points, we can now see the similarities and differences that can be understood in terms of languaculture and rich point. As we have seen, the journey metaphor in Japanese languaculture is similar in many respects to that of the English languaculture. A person of the English languaculture can apply many similar uses of the journey metaphor used in his language to convey messages in Japanese. However, once we took a look at the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY metaphor, we noticed that there is some underlying difference between the two systems of languacultures.This rich point shows that the journey metaphor used in the Japanese languaculture is not invariably congruent to its uses in the English languaculture, more precisely that the conceptual metaphor LEARNING IS A JOURNEY is a much more salient feature of the Japanese languaculture. The reason why this rich point stands out to the English speaking community is precisely because we place a higher emphasis on knowledge as an entity that can be acquired. Take for example common English expressions like I was hunting for the facts, I had to track that down, he won his degree at Oxford. The emphasis for these examples is that knowledge is something to be collected, whereas in Japanese, they place a stronger emphasis on knowledge as something that is to be transmitted to the learner through the process of engaging in the act, as we have seen in the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY examples. 22 5. Pilgrimages in Japan Now that we have made this point that the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY metaphor is a more prominent feature of Japanese languaculture than English languaculture, let us see how it relates to observations we make about English and Japanese behavioral culture.For one, pilgrimages are loaded with rich points. As we can tell from such classical literary works like Heike mono gatari and Sarashina nikki, pilgrimages have been an important religious practice for the Japanese people from at least the Heian period. Although it was originally an aristocratic practice, all classes of people were allowed to go on pilgrimages by the time of the Edo period (Vaporis 2008, 165). Due to the development of a national infrastructure provided with lodging, towns, and horses, this period of peace allowed for the masses to travel comfortably in search of spiritual fulfillment.The commoners were permitted to travel by the authorities as long as they were going on a pilgrimage or had familial purposes. Among the many temples and enshrines in Japan, the amount of people making pilgrimages to the Ise shrine increased rapidly. The Ise shrine is a Shintoistic shrine dedicated to the goddess Amaterasu in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture. Since ancient times, the festivals and offerings of the Ise shrine has been scheduled based on the bout of agriculture. People would go t o Ise to give thanks to the kami and pray for a plentiful harvest. ()The desire to make a pilgrimage to Ise Shrine, at least once in ones life was universal among Japanese people of the day. The people who have had the opportunity to undertake the pilgrimage would share the things that they had seen and heard on the 23 journey. These travelers tales godlike others to undertake the journey, in a cycle that perpetuated the legendary status of the Ise pilgrimage as something that everyone should do at least once in their lives. The Edo period is often referred to as a time of peace and stability in Japan, and as such the people had the means and leisure time to practise their aesthetic enjoyment.To explain, Tokugawa ideology grouped higher cultural attainments into two categories, bu and bun, military and literary arts. A gentleman of the time were expected to show interest in bun, more so than bu. Bun embraced reading and writing, Chinese thought, poetry, history and literature, noh dance and drama, tea ceremony, and other customary arts (Totman 1993, 186). Once one has acquired considerable skill in the art of pursuit, they would often go on a pilgrimage to learn more about the art and methods used in distant places. Thus, pilgrimages were an important learning experience for the Japanese people.Take the renowned haiku poet Matsuo Basho for example. In his travel diary Oku no hoso miti (Keene 1996), Basho journeys on foot to see the sites that had inspired famous poets before him. He knew the location of the places the poems described, and it was important for him to get a direct experience with the inspiration the poets must have matt-up when composing their poem. Bashos descriptions of the places he visited, many of which were at shrines and temples, were significant not just because the sites were awe-inspiring, but because of the legends and poems associated with the locations.Like the poems that inspired Basho to take on the journey, his own work have in turn inspired others to travel and learn about the places he talk about from a first hand experience. 24 Sangaku pilgrimages are another example. Sangaku are geometrical puzzles written on wooden tablets, which were placed as offerings at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. In Japan, it is fairly natural to hang wooden tablets at shrines and temples for centuries before sangaku came into existence, worshippers would bring gifts like the sort to local shrines. The kami, it was said, loved horses, but horses were expensive.So a worshipper who could not afford to offer a living one, offered a horse drawn on a piece wood instead. In fact, many tablets from the ordinal century and earlier depict horses (Fukagawa & Rothman 2008, 8). However, there was also a practical purpose in abatement the tablets. Ordinary people at the time could not afford to publish books with their novel mathematical problems. Therefore, as an alternative solution to gain recognition, they took up the ancient custom of bringing votive tablets to temples and began to hang sangaku to herald their work (Fukagawa & Rothman 2008, 21).Just like the poets who would travel for the sake of knowledge and experience, a number of geometers including Hodoji window glass, and Sakuma Yoken took sangaku pilgrimages to teach mathematics, encourage amateurs and lovers of geometry, and to hang and see previously hung sangaku in temples around the country. Among these itinerants was Yamaguchi Kanzan, a mathematician from the school of Hasegawa Hiroshi. In his journeys, he recorded a substantial travel diary that describes the sights, meetings with friends and other mathematicians, and the sangaku, problems he came across.With many distant mathematicians, he has discussed new skillful methods of solving mathematical problems. If you buy this book, he claimed, then you will be able to know and agree without traveling the new technical 25 methods of solving problems of far-away mathematicians (Fukagawa & R othman 2008, 244). () Pilgrimages were an important method of self-cultivation for people from all walks for life, with interests ranging from martial arts to moral philosophy. There are many reasons for the rise in popularity of pilgrimages, but it is probably the case that the roots of this trend come from Zen Buddhism.The history of Zen begins in Japan with the samurai class of Kamakura. Zen Buddhism had little chance of becoming popular in Heian period Kyoto due to the strong opposite word of the older schools of Buddhism. Where as in Kamakura, there were no such difficulties. Due to its philosophical and moral nature, Zen appealed greatly to the military classes (Suzuki 1959, 60). As the samurais became a new force in politics, they brought with them the newly embraced morality to the court.This in turn had significant influence in not only the court, but through general cultural life of the Japanese people all the way to the Edo period. Buddhist models inspired many of these pilgrimages that we see throughout history. The prototypical pilgrimages example in Japan is when Zen priests go on angya pilgrimage , which literally means, to go on foot. Historically, angya referred to the common practice of Zen monks and nuns travelling from master to master, or monastery to monastery, in search of someone to practice Zen with (Baroni 2002, 8).So pilgrimages in Japan took the introduction of Buddhism, which later became associated with prominent Chinese cultures like Daoism, as we can tell from the various pilgrims mentioned earlier. The interesting thing about it is that this religious practice of undertaking a pilgrimage as a method of self-cultivation is emulated by 26 various other disciplines like the ones mentioned in example (5). It is also interesting to note the varying degree of prominence the intellectual journey has in the context of Japanese culture as opposed to the anglophone culture.Although the concept of an intellectual journey exists in the English-speaking world (e. g. visiting national parks, field trips etc. ), it is not sort of as common or close to everyday consciousness as it is in Japan. The lack of explicit metaphors that reflect the notion of LEARNING IS A JOURNEY in English languaculture suggests a correlation of this difference with cultural behavior. The question then arises, what is the nature of the correlation between the observations we make in the linguistic and non-linguistic behavior we see about the Japanese?Is it the fact pilgrimages have had played a big role in the history of Japanese culture that because of the metaphorical bias of LEARNING IS A JOURNEY? Or is the causal relation the other way around? Or is there some third explanation? The main reason for the correlation we find between these two types of behavior is probably not a direct causal relationship between the two. Instead, the impact of Daoism and Buddhism on Japanese thought have probably played a role in making both the metaphor and the pilgrimage behavior prominent in Japan.This is indicated by the fact that many pilgrimages were inspired by Buddhist models, which also had a great impact on vocabulary and the content of literature the relationship therefore seems the result of a common set of historical circumstances affecting both linguistic and non-linguistic behaviors. Both are an expression of this influence. 6. Concluding remarks 27 In this paper, I have given a contrastive analysis of the role the journey metaphor plays in the English and Japanese languages.I have argued that although there are many similarities in the use of the journey metaphor in the two languages, there also are remarkable differences in that the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY metaphor is a much more salient feature of the Japanese language. Based on the concepts languaculture and rich points, I have attempted to show that the LEARNING IS A JOURNEY metaphor is a locus of an important rich point in Japanese culture, in the sense that it is an underlying conceptual metaphor, which manifests itself in both the linguistic and nonlinguistic behavior of the Japanese culture.To illustrate how this finding might be applied to non-linguistic behavior, I have also examined the issue of pilgrimages. It seems that the correlation between the saliency of the metaphor and pilgrimages are due to a common set of historical causes it does not seem to be the case that the salience of the metaphor was caused by the practice of pilgrimages or vice versa. 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