Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Women Have Evolved

Women have come a long way in America. They used to not be able to vote or stand alone with major decision that had to be made. Now they are so many advantages for women living in our society and now thank god these advantages are now rights to women of America. Women in the USA have taken advantage of these new right and exceled with them to become better individuals. Women in America have advantages because there are now contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, more women are able to go to school and get education, women now hold their own jobs and women are getting married at an older age because they are now independent. Contraceptives have become a must have for women in the United States. This great for American women because in past there were no contraceptives, women would get married and have many children because lack of birth control for them. Some women would have what they call mistakes, because of one night stands and be stuck with a baby they were not ready for. Women are now able with the help contraceptive to choose when they want to get pregnant and when they just want to wait till the time is right. Women have took advantage of being able to control getting pregnant and are now having children at older age, when they feel more mature and ready to have children. Women used to have to stay home in take care of their children. Most women in America would be lucky if they were even able to get a high school diploma. Men back in the days did not want their woman to further their education, but now with new advantages women have started excelling and going to college. They started to realize that they could still have a family and graduate from college. Women are taking their education seriously and now succeeding in college due being given the privileged attend college. As stated by whitehouse. gov â€Å"Woman’s gains in educational attainment have significantly outpaced those of men over the last 40 years† (para 5). Woman worth in this economy had started to become recognized in the United States. More women have started graduating from ollege and not stopping at high school because of starting a family. Because our society have given woman a chance to get a higher education there scores on test , classes and graduated rates have passed up the men in America. The Economist wrote â€Å"Women in the United States earned 60%of university degrees in America†(para 3). Now that women are able to work and not told to stay at home and watch after their children they are doing good in the workforce and able to obtain work that before was only able to be obtained by a man. The Economist stated â€Å"They run some of the world’s best companies, such as PepsiCo, Archer Daniels Midland and W. L. Gore (Para 3). Women are more independent with having their own jobs and do not depend on men to take care of them. Some women have had to step to the plate so that they could have a two income home and make in this new society in America. According to the Economist â€Å"Women now make up almost half of American workers (49. 9% in October)(para3).

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Ujian Matematik Tambahan

Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah Melaka 75450 Air Keroh Melaka Ujian 2 2007 Additional Mathematics Form 4 Time : 75 Minuets INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES 1 This question booklet consists of three parts, Section A and Section B. and Section C Answer All Question in Section A and B and two Question of section C 2 Give only one answer/ solution to each question. 3 Show your working . It may help you to get marks. 4 The figures/diagrams given in a problem in this question booklet would provide useful information to solve the problem. However, it might not be drawn to scale. 5 Write the answer in the answer sheets provided. All solution methods must be clearly shown. You may loose marks if important working steps are not properly shown. 7 The marks for each question or part-question are shown in brackets. 8 You may use a non- programmable scientific calculator. The following formulae may be helpful in answering the questions. The symbols given are the ones commonly used . 1 x = ?x N 6 Ar c length, s = r ? 7. Area of sector , A= 1 2 r ? 2 2 x = ? = ? fx ? f ? (x ? x ) N 2 8. = y=uv, 3 ?x N 2 dy dv du =u +v dx dx dx ?x 2 9 2 4 ?= ? f ( x ? x) ? f = ? fx ? f 2 ?x 2 du dv v ? u u y = , dx = dx 2 dx , v dy v dy dy du = ? dx du dx 10 5 ?1 ? ?2N? F? M = L+? C ? fm ? ? ? ? ? Section A 1 Answer all questions The mean of x+ 3, 2x – 5, x + 7, x and 3x + 7, is 12 . Find (a) the value of x (b) median [ 4 marks ] Answer : (a) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (b) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. A set of examination marks a1 , a2, a 3, a 4, a5, a6, has a mean of 5 and standard deviation of 1. 5 Find (i) the sum of the marks, ? a , (ii) the sum of the squares of the marks, ?a 2 [ 3 marks ] Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3. The mean of a set of four positive integers is 6. When a number y is taken out from the set, the mean becomes 5. Find the value of y. [ 3 marks ] Answe r †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4. The mean of the set of numbers 2. 5, 3. 6, 4. 3, 5. 8, x is 4. . Find the standard deviation of the set of data. Give your answer correct to three decimal places [3 marks] Answer†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ________________________________________________________________________ 5 Marks Number of student 1 -20 2 21 – 40 1 41- 60 5 61 – 80 14 81 – 100 8 Table above shows the marks obtained by a group of students I a monthly test. Find the standard deviation of the marks. Give your answer correct to two decimal places. [ 4 marks ] Answer :†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ __________________________________________________________________________ _ 6 (a) Convert 231 o 11 ‘ to radian (b) Convert 1. 455 to degree and minutes [ 2 marks ]Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 Diagram 1 shows a sector AOB with centre O . A 5c m O 0. 5 rad 5c m B DIAGRAM 1 Find the area of the shaded segment [ 4 marks] Answer :†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 r A O 63 o B Diagram 2 shows a circle with centre O. Given that the length of the major arc AB is 62. 21 cm, find the length of the radius, r , in cm. [3 marks ] DIAGRAM 2 Answer :†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Diagram 3 shows two arcs, AD and BC, for two circle with centre O and radius OA and OB respectively. 12 cm ? 10 cm 10 cm DIAGRAM 3 Given that the length of arc BC is 12 cm , OD is 10 cm and OD : DC = 5 : 2 Find , a) ? , in radian b) the are of the shaded region ABCD. 4 marks] Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ __________________________________________________________________________ _ Section B Answer two question only [ 20 marks ] 1 Table 1 shows the marks of 80 students in an examination. Marks No of Students 50 – 59 8 60 – 69 25 TABLE 1 (a) Calculate the mean marks of the student. [ 3 marks ] 70 – 79 22 80 – 89 18 90 – 99 7 (b) Draw a histogram and estimate its mode [ 4 marks ] (c) Without drawing an ogive, calculate the median marks of the students [ 3 marks ] 2 Diagram 4 shows sector AOB and sector OED with centre O and E respectively . OCE is a right angle triangle. A cm C BO D ? RAJAH 6 E Given that ? AOB is 500 , OA = 10 cm , OE = 8 cm and OB : BC = 2 : 1. Calculate (a) (b) (c) ? and radian, [2 marks] perimeter of the shaded region in cm, [4 marks] area of the shaded region in cm2. [4 marks] 3 a) Find the value of 4 3 i) limit x ? 3x + 2 x x>4 x 2 ? 64 ii) limit n >8 x ? 8 [3 marks] b) Find dy of y = 3Ãâ€"2 by using first principle dx [2 marks] c) Differentiate the following with respect to x 1 i) y = x + ? 5 ii) y = 2Ãâ€"3 ( 3x -5)4 x 128 d) Given that f(x) = 2x – 3 find f ? (2 ) x [ 3 marks ] [ 2 marks ] END OF QUESTION PAPER Prepared By †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Pn Saripah Ahmad Approved by,

Monday, July 29, 2019

This paper needs have 3 fully developed paragraphs. Will upload more Essay

This paper needs have 3 fully developed paragraphs. Will upload more details - Essay Example elf-help book’, Walden, where the author urges the readers to assert their individuality, even if it meant turning down their family’s hopes or expectations of them. He then proceeds to take examples from America’s economic philosophy as well as his personal experiences as a psychiatrist to point out how the goal of self-sufficiency and individual enterprise appears to be very deeply entrenched in the American psyche. He points out how a new piece of legislation (passed around the time of publication of the essay in 1997) in Louisiana that allowed for something called a ‘covenant marriage’ wherein getting divorce would be a more difficult proposition than usual, was not really reflective of traditional American values but the opposite. The fact that the whole school of psychotherapy, as prominently practiced and advanced by personalities like Erik Erikson, Murray Bowen or Carl Rogers, emphasizes ‘enhanced autonomy’, is taken by Kramer to indicate how American society at large valued individual autonomy over what he terms ‘mutuality.’ Kramer’s concludes: ‘Though we profess abhorrence of d ivorce, I suspect that the divorce rate reflects our national values with great exactness.’ To counter this increased dependence on autonomous existence Kramer suggests resetting ‘mutuality’ as a goal worth aspiring for. He cites another school of psychiatry as exemplified by the work of Jean Baker Miller which suggests that finding one’s self does not necessarily have to be an exaggeratedly lonely process. Finding oneself through relating to others was just as satisfying and genuine a process of self-development. Kramer also argues that women have traditionally been considered the more tactful ones and therefore the onus of being the one to compromise in a situation of conflict often falls on them, rather unfairly. This too needs to be changed and expanded to each gender so that the relationship is one of true equality. Kramer makes a strong

Sunday, July 28, 2019

BMW's Market Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

BMW's Market Strategy - Essay Example As such, BMW’s market strategy will be evaluated and analyzed for optimal performance. Pros and cons of BMW’s market strategy BMW has been a leading auto manufacturing company that has maintained its niche market leadership through strategic market plans. The target segmentation and highly creative advertising have been its major elements of success. BMW has introduced different variants of its luxury cars to cater to the different segments of the market. The selective target marketing has helped it to exploit the requirements of people coming from myriad backgrounds. With the evolving times, people’s purchase behaviour underwent dramatic changes. While initially social class represented the high end BMW cars, consumers’ changing demands, vis-a-vis design variety, size, price, and style choices became the major factors in buying decisions. BMW started with 3, 5, and 7 series that only varied in size and not design. But 1980s was distinct in its populace of baby boomers, yuppies, and other fast upcoming segments of the market; the representatives of these segments had money to flaunt and expected new products and services from manufacturers. ... Shultz (2001) strongly believes that it is the end-users who now control the markets rather than the marketers. The fast changing demography of increasing pluralistic society has significantly impacted the market strategy. The socio-psychological paradigms have emerged as crucial elements that influence buying decisions. Personal choices representing people’s changing social status and family compulsions have become important issues. Indeed, according to Assael (1998), family is considered to be the most important consumption and decision making unit. A big comfortable family sedan may be required by affluent families for their family outing, or sleek and sophisticated fast paced machine may be the choice of new breed of young turks. The BMW’s decision to develop more categories within its various series was, therefore, not only necessary but also an extremely important ingredient of its strategic plans. It helped to penetrate new market and maintain its competitive adv antage in the market. Moreover, consumption pattern and lifestyle are intrinsically linked to the changing cultural paradigms in the contemporary environment of rapid globalization. Ennis (2009) argues that culture impacts the changing lifestyle of people and, consequently, influences their consumption pattern of the product. It is especially true for persons who are the main decision makers and control the finances. Furthermore, Kotler, Brown et al. (2010) assert that in the contemporary environment of globalization, brand creation and brand equity hugely facilitate in maintaining competitive leverage as the products are same. The brand provides the customer with a quality product which satisfies his or her needs and establishes a market

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Motives and Incentives in the Performance of Employees Dissertation

Motives and Incentives in the Performance of Employees - Dissertation Example One of the most important aspects of a business in production is the motivation of the workforce. Manual labour is not comparable to the work produced by machines, and therefore the amount of work done is not the same. Thus, the most effective way to increase company performance and ensure productive, effective employees is to take steps to motivate the staff. One of the usual managerial approaches to this goal is through the use of financial rewards, however research suggests that there may be other more suitable strategies. In fact, Kohn (1993) suggests that if the motivational frame is focused only on material rewards, the levels of production might actually decrease.  Pugh and Hickson (1989) investigated this area through the â€Å"Hawthorne Experiment†. The conclusion of their study was that if the managers do not take into account the employees’ personal necessities and desires, they will be likely to maximize payment but minimize effort. Therefore, it is a cruc ial issue among business at present to learn how to offer non-material rewards as motivation. Hoegl and Gemuenden (2001) support this by stating that teamwork can be defined as a social structure comprised of over three people in context or organization. Therefore, as members of this structure work together as a single unit and look to achieve the same objective, techniques which improve the inter-relationship will improve group output. Additionally, the power of agglomerate and relation of status, composition, leadership, size, principles.... The global crisis has made it increasingly vital for organizations to take measures to ensure the life of their businesses, overcoming both internal and external operation factors to achieve revenue growth and corporate performance. It is widely agreed that effective management of one of the most important factors for organizations to stay profitable in a highly competitive global economy. These factors of production are the three M’s: materials, machine and manpower. It is the last of these, the human resource of a company, which poses the biggest challenge. A motivated employee is a valuable asset that brings tremendous worth to an organization. 1.2 The Objectives of the Research This research will try to resolve the problem of employee motivation and incentives programs by determining the factors that would give them motivation in their work, which in turn will result into satisfactory performance that would make possible the organization’s success. It will also try to look into the style and strategies of Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, the company in focus, in dealing with their workforce and how their workforce stay motivated and happy with their job. 1.3 Research Problems It is the purpose of this paper to identify the motivational strategies and incentives that would improve employee behaviour in the workplace. The focus of this study will be an evaluation of the practices of hospitals in Saudi Arabia, particularly Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah. This will include an evaluation of the employee motivation and incentive strategies available to Al-Jamal Hospital, how they were applied in the organization and the effectiveness of these approaches. 1.4 Limitations of the Study As the data collected for random sampling will be from a single

Friday, July 26, 2019

How do impulses affect the performer A comparative study between Essay

How do impulses affect the performer A comparative study between Stanislavski and Grotowski - Essay Example This evolutionary development of the art of acting is an effort that gradually developed through time, and the effort of various professionals in the visual arts. Earlier players simply relied on the imitation of characters, but as time went by, empirical observations from individuals interested in the field of acting led to the development of systematized models of training actors. The training of actors is essential for the sake of attaining the ‘make belief effect’ that is the essence of all theatre performances (Wolford, 1996, p. 38). This paper is going to evaluate the theme of imagination while considering how counter impulse and automatic impulse affects the performer in a comparative study between Stanislavski and Grotowski. The major highlight shall be the effect of impulse on theater performers. The development of literature containing principles of training actors has been a materialization that has gradually developed through time by various virtuosos in the field of acting. The process has been gradually and progressive with various professionals building upon other works by their predecessors in the field. The most renown amongst them is Constantine Stanislavski, Grotowski, Brooks, and Chekhov, just to mention but a few. Most of these contributors trace their ideas and their development to Stanislavski’s system of training actors (Wolford 1996). ... The system was designed to use a progression of techniques to aid the actors in drawing believable emotions in their performances. Grotowski’s work is quite different because it introduces the concept of impulses and their effects on the performance ability of the actors. Unlike Stanislavski’s approach that mainly focuses on physical actions, Grotowski’s system mainly emphasizes outward focused approach. In this approach, the actor focuses on channeling his or her inner impulses into action (Wolford 1996). Therefore, actions during acting are inspired or influenced by inner developed impulses. The current approaches to training are a combination of various contributions made by these forerunners in the field of actor training. Stanislavski’s method focuses on both the ‘external’ expression and the ‘internal’ generation of actions that humans engage in and tries to establish the connection between the two (Allen 2000, p .55). Accor ding to Stanislavski, the actions in the acting process generate emotions that are desired for the performance. For this case, each physical action has a psychological element, which is the psychological action which generates it (Allen 2000). On the converse, each inner psychological action gets physical expression in one way or another. This duality is basic to acting, and one may not solely exist without the other. Therefore, in this concept, an actor can begin by simple physical actions and penetrate the deep-most and complex experiences and feelings. The most important thing in ‘physical actions’ in acting is not the memory of the feelings, but rather what takes place that can lead to the creation of a feeling (Benedetti 2010, p. 71). In such

Business profile of brazil Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business profile of brazil - Essay Example Along with this there are recommendations for investment in certain sectors and the government focuses upon these sectors with FDI policy. This report details out factors that are analysed for investment criteria in Brazil economy that will benefit investors and traders. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 4 Brazil Economy 4 GDP (Gross Domestic Product) Growth 6 Inflation Rate 7 Inflation and Interest Rates 9 Interest Rates 11 FDI Policy by Brazil Government and Investment in Automobile Sector 12 International Trade Theory & Investment Opportunity 13 Balance of Trade 14 Exchange Rate 15 Exchange Rate and Current Account 16 Economic Indicators 16 Better Investment Opportunity in Energy Sector in Brazil 17 Conclusion 21 References 22 Introduction The report illustrates the investment opportunity for a company that wants to invest in Brazilian economy. The potential of the Brazil’s economy will be provided in detail along with the sector that will benefit from the investment opportunity of the company. The report will be published in The Economist magazine so that the investment opportunity in Brazil can be highlighted to the general public for investment purpose. For the analysis of the investment opportunity, the economic aspects of the international economy along with Brazil’s economic conditions will be discussed. ... Brazil Economy In South America, Brazil is the biggest country and it is the fifth largest country in the world in terms of area. Brazil is well known for its raw materials production and has been able to contribute more to the world’s GDP. The economy of Brazil is largest in South America and it has been able to boost the development of mining, agriculture, manufacturing and service sectors (Economy Watch, 2011). The economy of Brazil outweighs other nations of South America and its economy is expanding and its presence can be felt in the international arena as well. Since 2003, the economy of Brazil has improved steadily with the macroeconomic stability, reduction in its debts and building up foreign reserves. According to CIA, it was in the year 2008 when Brazil became ‘net external creditor’ and was awarded in the investment category status related to its debt by two rating agencies. Even after the financial recession in 2008, the economy of Brazil was the fir st to recover quickly. In 2010, the ‘consumer and investor confidence index’ revived and grew. The high interest rate and the growth of the Brazil’s economy make it attractive for the purpose of investment. There was large inflow of foreign capital in the economy that raised the value of the currency and government has also increased the tax upon certain foreign investments (CIA, 2011). There has been a significant increase of 7.5% in the economy of Brazil. This was due to the stronger currency value during the year 2010 and is expected to grow. ‘A GDP of 3.675 trillion Reais was converted at the year’s average exchange rate into US $2.089 trillion’. This is the reason that Brazil economy overtook Italy’s economy and the per-capital income of Brazil exceeded than

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Insurance law Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Insurance law - Research Paper Example The insured party is not compensated by the insurer. This type of policy is commonly taken by those owning automobile. 2. Third-party, theft and fire. This type of cover is an extension of the third-party cover by including risks associated with theft and fire. The risks covers the policyholder only not the third party. 3. Comprehensive cover: this type of covers insures the insured plus the other party who incurred loss caused by the inured party. Comprehensive cover is more advantageous than third party insurance. One is returned back to the level he/she was before the predetermined risk occurred Insurance just like any field has to have its principles to ensure a fair playing field among the involved parties. These principles are regarded as the pillars of insurance and ingredients for transformation. This principle gives the policyholder who has been insured against a predetermined the right to be compensated. The compensation should restore the policyholder back to where he/she was before the risk occurs. Therefore, one should not expect to be paid much than what he/she suffered as a result of the risk. Insurance is a contract and thus, requires information from both parties to be bias free. It is from the information that premium is calculated and therefore, information inconsistency and inaccuracy may lead to wrong premium calculation and interfere with compensation. Health insurance is most affected with this principle since any omission in the health satus of the insured might compel the insurer not to compensate the insured in case a risk occurred and the insurer had no information regarding certain element of the health status of the insured. This principle covers the issue surrounding premium. An insured party is expected to pay a predetermined amount of cash referred to as premium for him/her to be compensated when a risk occurs. Failure to pay the agreed amount might result for one not being compensated in case a risk

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Dwarf planet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dwarf planet - Essay Example sume the spherical shape and secondly, they have not yet established a debris free orbit in their solar system and thirdly, they must not be satellites for other planets. Further, if the celestial object in question is too small to take the rounded spherical shape, it would probably be classified as a comet or an asteroid. In our own solar system, there are several objects that fall under this category of planets. The introduction of this new category of celestial objects was prompted by the recent discovery of Eris – a disc shaped cluster of debris that was located far beyond the orbit of Pluto. The other notable dwarf planets in our solar system are Ceres and Pluto. Ceres was for previously recognized as the largest asteroid and Pluto is demoted to dwarf planet status considering that its orbit is not as well established as other planets. It is interesting to note that these three are only the most prominent dwarf planets in our solar system. There could be as many as 200 orbiting in the outer reaches of our solar

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Lab organization and Management case study Essay

Lab organization and Management case study - Essay Example ization- test systems and test items; rules- standard operating procedures (SOPs) and etiquette; results- unrefined data, reporting and archiving; and quality assurance- autonomous examination of research activities (Agrawal et al, 2009, p.10). It is quite clear that employees at Best Pet Test Company filed to adhere to the best lab practices outlined in the GLP. For instance, Harold did not keep accurate records during his spell as the company’s lab safety manager. In addition, the lab employees used hand written labels to tag the urine sample because two of the three hand-held bar-code readers were not functioning properly. The results of tests carried on the samples were also inconsistent. Lab staff members were often seen in the mail room or lunch area wearing their lab coats. To make the matters worse, Rene (the new lab safety manager at the company) found a number of unlabeled bottles of chemicals cluttering the fume hoods. In the lab, some of the staff members testing blood samples had their morning coffee sitting next to a centrifuge. To cap it all, the local media published a story that laboratory waste with labels from Best Test, Inc. was discovered at an abandoned quarry nearby. The illustration above demonstrates the failure by the company to adhere to GLP standards. GLP regulations stipulate logical descriptions of the structure of the research institute and the duties of each research employee. This implies that Best Test Inc. chart should reveal the activities of the company which must be updated on a regular basis. Job descriptions and organizational charts reflect the manner in which the lab functions as well as the correlation between the various posts and departments. In addition, GLP guidelines emphasize that the number of laboratory staff must be adequate to carry out the required tasks in an efficient and GLP-compliant manner (Kumari & Bhatia, 2003, p.5). The duties of all lab employees should be clearly described and recorded. Their

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas A. Khun Essay Example for Free

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas A. Khun Essay In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas A. Khun argues that scientific progress is not a matter of the slow, steady accumulation of knowledge over time but, rather, that it is characterized by long-standing beliefs about the world being radically overturned by the discovery of new information that fails to conform to existing frameworks. He also argues that the nature of the progress of science tends to be mischaracterized in textbooks and in educational practices, which typically cast the progress of science as a cumulative acquisition of knowledge where one breakthrough follows logically from the last.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the essay, Khun uses the term â€Å"paradigm† to describe what science at large currently holds to be true about nature. The definition of a paradigm is a temporal one subject to change and any given paradigm only survives so long as it is useful to the working scientist.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"These [paradigms] I take to be universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners† (p. ix), he states in the book’s foreword.   This   definition of a scientific paradigm is essential to Khun’s reasoning. Kuhn goes on to deconstruct the process by which revolutions take place, how they are generally brought to be accepted and how they influence the work and attitudes of the scientists that work within their parameters. For Kuhn, a revolution in paradigm equals a revolution in science.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The paradigm is central to the work of what Khun calls â€Å"normal science†   which he defines as â€Å"†¦firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice. (p. 10)† This is the stuff of text books, the academy and what forms the majority of scientific research. Much of normal science concerns itself with fitting what information is gathered by practitioners into the predefined â€Å"box† provided by the current paradigm. Described by the author as â€Å"mopping up† operations, these endeavors occupy the working lives of most scientist. Practitioners of normal science are not concerned with the discovery of new information that fails to fit the existing paradigm (p. 24).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the workplace, the word â€Å"paradigm† has taken on a much less structured definition than that used by Kuhn. A paradigm may well describe a current consensus of scientific thought and practice or it might describe a series of results expected of the practitioner by they who fund the experiments. It could describe a corporate paradigm—a word that corporations do not hesitate to use and stretch to the point of nonsense-that serves as a working model for how the business at hand ought to be carried out. The use of the word paradigm in the workplace differs significantly from Khun’s. Where Kuhn is careful to offer a clear, concise definition of the term, in the casual language of the workplace a â€Å"paradigm† can refer to almost anything that serves as a model from which something is expanded.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The story of the evolution of science is   a story of one paradigm being replaced by another. For a new paradigm to emerge, it must be so compelling and so better-suited to explaining the observed universe that it draws scientists away from the old paradigm which preceded it. It also must leave enough to be discovered that those who engage in research are compelled to embrace the new paradigm (p. 10). Once the new paradigm becomes the establishment view, the work of normal science becomes concerned with refining the empirical research that necessitated the creation of the new paradigm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The work of gathering factual information about the universe and the influence of the current paradigm on that gathering is a defining characteristic of normal science. Kuhn breaks the process of fact gathering into three distinct categories: the gathering of facts that the paradigm shows to be particularly revealing; the gathering of facts that can be compared to the predictions of the theory; and, the gathering of facts which allow the resolution of ambiguities in the existing paradigm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The first type of fact gathering often concerns itself with refining data to a greater degree of accuracy than was previously possible. The accuracy of the data scientists are able to gather using a refractor telescope   is far exceeded by the accuracy of the information they are able to gather with a radio telescope. The pursuit of such refinements takes up a great deal of the resources of normal science. It is precisely because the existing paradigm holds that the accuracy of data describing the position and movement of stellar objects is of the utmost importance that resources are committed to such pursuits. In the field of normal science, a practitioner may become regarded as particularly accomplished through these endeavors. As Kuhn puts it: From Tycho Brahe to E.O. Lawrence, some scientists have acquired great reputations, not from any novelty of their discoveries, but from the precision, reliability, and scope of the methods they developed for the redetermination of a previously known sort of fact . (p. 26) In this instance, normal science seeks not to innovate, but to refine the means by which the paradigm is validated.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is also imperative for the paradigm to more accurately make useful predictions and a second focus of normal science concerns itself with this. To this end, specialized equipment is created that allows more precise measurements of natural phenomena which serves to bring data more in line with the predictions of the paradigm. In these cases, the paradigm not only dictates the question, but the methodology by which the answer is to be obtained. The existence of the paradigm sets the problem to be solved; often the paradigm theory is implicated directly in the design of the apparatus able to solve the problem (p. 27).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As Kuhn sees it, the machinery, method and the question itself all owe their design, and the nature of their application, to the paradigm they are intended to investigate.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kuhn’s third class of fact-gathering endeavors concerns itself with further refining the paradigm itself.   This is the most important class of fact-gathering in normal science (p. 27) and Kuhn divides it into subtypes, being those which seek to establish a mathematical constant, those which aim toward the creation of qualitative laws and those which aim to articulate a paradigm in ways that describe phenomena closely-related to those which the paradigm was originally designed to describe. He describes this third class of data-gathering activities as more closely resembling exploration than the others (p. 29).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kuhn observes that normal science finds itself with a lot of mopping up to be done on behalf of the paradigm. Mopping up can be understood as the work necessary to make findings fit the paradigm.   Mopping up can also be understood by what it does not endeavor to do. Normal science, in its mop up efforts, does not strive to find anomalies and novelties that do not fit within the relevant paradigm, nor does it tend to pay much attention to those anomalies it does discover. Normal scientists don’t concern themselves with inventing new paradigms nor are they particularly tolerant of those who do (p. 24).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   While this could be interpreted as an excessively narrow, almost dogmatic, situation, Kuhn holds that such experimentation facilitates advancement within the paradigm and, thus, the advancement of science as a whole. Even though the work may be being done in the service of the paradigm more than in the interest of novel discovery, it still serves a useful purpose. As in many other instances in the book, Kuhn gives an historical example to shore up his argument. †¦ the men who designed the experiments that were to distinguish between the various theories of heating by compression were generally the same men who had made up the versions being compared. They were working both with fact and with theory , and their work produced not simply new information but a more precise paradigm, obtained by the elimination of ambiguities that the original from which they worked had retained(p. 34).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In this way, normal science working under a paradigm does increase the accuracy and understanding of the natural world, however inflexible the basis for that work may be. An element of normal science that Khun finds characteristic is that it contains an aspect of   Ã¢â‚¬Å"puzzle-solving†(p. 36).   Puzzles are a category of problems that require one to think creatively to find a solution. What makes puzzles particularly relevant is that there is only one correct answer to the puzzle. While a puzzle-solver may find a novel way to fit together the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, it would be judged as wrong if that novelty did not result in the picture offered as the correct solution. Similarly, much of normal science concerns itself with finding answers which are known in advance of whatever effort is made to find them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A practitioner of normal science seldom sets out to conduct an experiment for which he does not already suspect he has the result. The power of the paradigm is to make those predictions accurately and the lure of the puzzle is that it presents a problem where the skill of the scientist can be ascertained by their ability to find answers that may have eluded previous researchers (p. 38). There is a certain addictive property in this, to be sure, particularly to those with the sort of curiosity-driven personality that lends itself to the practice of science.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã¢â‚¬Å"There must also be rules that limit both the nature of acceptable solutions and the steps by which they are to be obtained† (p. 38) .   Again, the box with all its rigidity serves to paradoxically advance understanding the universe through its restrictions. There must be expectations for without expectations there is no way to define what is anomalous; no way to determine what is novel. Kuhn uses the example of a machine that measures wavelengths of light. The machine’s designer must demonstrate that they are, indeed, measuring the wavelengths of light as they are understood by current theory. Any unexplained anomalies that fail to fit with what is expected are likely to be seen as a flaw in the design of the experiment that renders its findings essentially useless (p. 39).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is an obvious workplace connection to Kuhn’s description of how a paradigm functions to at once restrict and advance science. Were an anomaly to become commonplace enough that it merited investigation, then perhaps resources and time will be allocated to that pursuit. However, the tendency of normal science being to ignore or suppress anomalous findings, it is more likely that those anomalies will be disregarded altogether for cause of their adding nothing to the existing paradigm under which the scientists, and thus the workplace, operate. But, in cases where those anomalies cannot be ignored, where they are not truly anomalous but, rather, repeatedly-observed novel facts, the seeds for innovation are sewn.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A novel discovery can shatter a scientific paradigm and bring about changes that could have never been expected. â€Å"After they [novelties] have become parts of science, the enterprise, at least of those specialists in whose particular field the novelties lie, is never quite the same again† (p.52)   .   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For a discovery to be truly novel, it must satisfy two criteria: it must not be predicted by the current paradigm and it must be something for which the scientist was not prepared. When this situation occurs, the paradigm cannot simply be added to in order to explain the novelty. The scientist must â€Å"learn to see nature in a different way† (p. 53) before the fact becomes a scientific fact.   Seeing nature in a different way, however, presents a crisis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   If the anomaly, upon investigation, becomes recurrent, a process starts where it becomes clear the that the paradigm must change. This cause a great deal of anxiety in the scientific community as a paradigm shift inevitably means that the techniques and foundations of science need rewritten. Kuhn remarks: â€Å"As one might expect, that insecurity is generated by the persistent failure of the puzzles of normal science to come out as they should. Failure of existing rules is the prelude to a search for new ones† (p. 68). This is an important observation for the practicing scientist. While it is easy enough to regard anomalies as a failure of equipment design or of the practitioner, keeping one’s mind open to the possibility that a novel, and potentially important, phenomena has been observed is imperative to the progress of science. Further study within the paradigm may serve to identify the anomalous as the norm and thereby advance the paradigm as a whole. The study of the anomalies within the paradigm is, perhaps ironically, the best way to advance the paradigm itself. â€Å"So long as the tools a paradigm supplies continue to prove capable of solving the problems it defines, science moves fastest and penetrates most deeply through confident employment of those tools† (p. 76).   Khun regards the crisis as an opportunity. â€Å"The significance of crises is the indication they provide that an occasion for retooling has arrived† (p. 76) . Now that the crisis is at hand, what remains to be seen is how the scientific community will act toward it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It may seem that Kuhn is sometimes disparaging toward science for its rather strict adherence to its guiding paradigms. However, there are counterinstances to any paradigm that occur in most any research and, therefore, any research presents crisis (p. 81). Normal science does well to be pragmatic in the face of anomalous data, if only for the sake of saving time and money that can be directed toward more useful research. Scientists generally do not line up to renounce their existing paradigm in the face of anomalies.   Even persistent anomalies that cannot be explained by a mistake do not generally present a crisis (p. 81). Oftentimes, continued work within the existing paradigm will serve to resolve the anomalies. Sometimes these counterinstances are set aside to be resolved later if they prove not particularly disruptive.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The process of a paradigm being rewritten has its own historical pattern. â€Å"All crises begin with the blurring of a paradigm and the consequent loosening of the rules for normal research† (p. 84) . When this occurs, science returns to a state similar to that which existed before the creation of the paradigm now in question. There is ambiguity, the opportunity for innovation and creativity but within a small, clearly defined area. This situation, however, is where revolution is fermented.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The construction of the new paradigm is not a slow, cumulative process, it is a complete â€Å"reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals† (p. 85). There will be a period where both paradigms are used to solve problems but the difference between the means by which the problem is solved will be decidedly different in each model. The process of redefining the paradigm is part of extraordinary science. When scientists are confronted with crises, they react by embracing different attitudes toward the existing paradigm. The proliferation of competing articulations, the willingness to try anything, the expression of explicit discontent, the recourse to philosophy and to debate of fundamentals, all these are symptoms of a transition from normal to extraordinary research (p. 91).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After setting up the playing field, Kuhn begins to describe the actual process by which a revolution takes place. He references the nature of political revolution as a parallel. â€Å"Political revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, often restricted to a segment of the political community, that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created† (p. 92) . Possibly more than in any other part of the essay, Kuhn start to flex his intellectual power in this chapter. He uses as one example of the parallel the discovery of the X-ray. For most astronomers, x-rays presented no real problem and were easily enough assimilated into their existing paradigm. For a particular group of scientists, however, specifically those who worked with radiation theory or whose work involved the use of cathode ray tubes, x-rays violated the laws of the paradigm under which they worked.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Like a political revolution, the new paradigm seeks to replace the old in part because the old paradigm does not allow for the existence of the new. They are not compatible in the same way that ruler by a hereditary monarch was not compatible with the new paradigm of representative democracy that characterized the American revolution. For there to be a need for a new paradigm, the old must be logically incapable of providing an explanation for the anomaly, or anomalies, that served as the impetus for its being questioned.    It follows that the new paradigm must make predictions that are inherently different from those of its predecessor (p. 97). For the new to come into its own, parts of the old must be sacrificed (p. 93). As the crisis deepens, competing camps vie for relevance, each offering its own solution to the problem at hand. They each attract their adherence and the auspices of the old paradigm are no longer sufficient to unite the divided camps. As is the case with political revolutions, there is a freewheeling period where there is no clear authority.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The debate between the new paradigms is essential.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Each one lures adherents with its promises of usefulness and its vision of life under the new paradigm.   Scientists do not leave their paradigms easily. In fact, rather than being left out in the cold, most scientists will not reject their existing paradigm until a viable alternative is offered (p. 77).   Kuhn holds that the study of persuasive argument is as important as the study of logical and reasoned argument in periods during which practitioners are undertaking the process of finding a viable alternative to a no-longer adequate paradigm (p. 94).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kuhn holds that scientific revolutions invariably resolve with the world view of the scientific community having been forever changed (p. 111). What was once familiar is now new, what was once established as accurate is now proven to be something less than that by the new paradigm. Paradoxically, the new perception depends upon the new paradigm just as the old mode of seeing the world depended upon adherence to the discarded paradigm. Without a point of reference, the world becomes incoherent. Where scientific revolutions are concerned, there may be a shift in paradigm but there is always a paradigm, whether it be contemporary or past its relevance. As Kuhn argues in previous chapters, it is from this structure that innovation flows and, therefore, the constant presence of a paradigm is not necessarily a failing on the part of science.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Though the world of science may have been turned on its ear, one is unlikely to ever get this impression from textbooks and courses. The paradigm, once established, becomes victim to what Khun calls the â€Å"invisibility† of scientific revolutions. This could be seen as a true weakness in the scientific community. Like those that ferment and enable political revolutions, scientists tend to rewrite history in such a way that omits the conflict, controversy and creativity that led to the revolution that gave birth to the current paradigm. †¦scientists are more affected by the temptation to rewrite history, partly because the results of scientific research show no obvious dependence upon the historical context of the inquiry, and partly because, expect during crisis and revolution, the scientist’s contemporary position seems so secure (p. 138).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, this remarkable history of revolution in thought, in practice and in humankind’s knowledge of the universe is glossed over in textbooks. The revolutions that once turned the world on its ear, at least for scientists, become the realm of normal science and the practitioners go back to mopping up reality to make it conform to the predictions of the new paradigm just as they did in the service of the old. Kuhn makes his case mostly by citing textbooks as an example of how history is rewritten but, since text books are the tool of the trade where the teaching of science is concerned, the significance is obvious.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the way in which the paradigm is regarded has its advantages. †¦once the acceptance of a common paradigm has freed the scientific community from the need constantly [sic] re-examine its first principles, the members of that community can concentrate exclusively upon the subtlest and most esoteric of the phenomena that concern it. Inevitably, that does increase both the effectiveness and the efficiency with which the group as a while solves new problems (p. 164) . Here, again, is the theme of the â€Å"box† of the paradigm allowing scientists to explore beyond its limits. The efficiency with which scientists can work under a shared paradigm and the reliable set of tools with which it provides them are priceless. Perhaps, this is the reason the scientific community works so hard to preserve whatever paradigm is relevant at the time; it is not the fear of the new but the fear of the loss of what has proven itself valuable.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What is interesting about Kuhn’s essay is that he does not use the word â€Å"truth†-excepting in a quotation from Francis Bacon—a fact that he point out himself (p. 170). Kuhn holds that there may not be a need for any such lofty goal. â€Å"Can we not account for both science’s existence and its success in term of evolution from the community’s state of knowledge at any given time?† (p. 171)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This is a powerful idea. Perhaps, a better understanding of the universe is not a goal but a thing better defined-and accomplished-if it is understood to be an ongoing process. Kuhn also provides a powerful question for those who would regard, or characterize, science as a form of dogma: â€Å"Does it really help to imagine that there is some one full, objective, true account of nature and that the proper measure of scientific achievement is the extent to which it brings us closer to that ultimate goal?† (p. 171)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A poignant question, indeed. Is there an endpoint to science? Is there a point where there will be nothing left to learn, nothing left to explore and when the collected work of science will entail all that there is to know about the universe? If history is any indication, such a situation is unlikely. The story of science, and Kuhn argues this convincingly, can be seen as a continuing process without any particular goal in site. There may be the subset of goals toward which the practitioner of normal science works, but these are simple goals relating to the desired outcome for one experiment or another, not goals set for science as a whole. That is to say, to work toward a better understanding of the orbit of Jupiter is not to work toward anything so esoteric as a better understanding of the universe, it is to simply add to the ongoing process of scientific revolution by examining one subset of data within a paradigm. The value of Kuhn’s essay extends beyond what value it may have to practitioners of science. It provides a framework that can help anyone, scientist or not, understand the means by which science determines what is an accurate description of the natural world. Science currently finds itself challenged on many fronts for many reasons, most of them having little to do with science and a great deal to do with politics and theology. Kuhn’s essay provides a potent reply to the casting of science as dogmatic or religious in nature.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Personally, I feel that this book is of the utmost value to anyone engaged in the practice of science at any level. What Kuhn manages to do in this essay is to communicate what amounts to an understanding of understanding itself. The scientific method has proven over and over again to be the most accurate means that humanity has devised to make sense of the universe. But science must strive to understand itself as much as it strives to understand the universe.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The only sure protection against dogmatism is the acknowledgement that all theories are temporal, subject to unexpected and radical change and that they function to explain nature as it is currently understood. There is an important distinction between our current understanding of the universe, our paradigm, and the reality of the universe. Our understanding is always limited to the cumulative experiences of scientists past and present, which, along with those significant moments of revolution have provided the best means available to make accurate and useful predictions. The nature of science, however, is one of constant evolution. As Kuhn argues, this evolution is not a process remarkable for its consistency so much as it is a process remarkable for being punctuated by research and discoveries that cause huge leaps forward in understanding. A scientist who does not understand this may well find themselves consigned to a life of puzzle-solving exercises designed to confirm what is already known rather than experiencing what I would submit is the true passion-inducing aspect of science, the discovery of novel facts that turn the world of science upside down and test the limits of the scientific community’s ability to assimilate and understand those discoveries. Probably the most radical contrast between science and dogma is that science, in its best practice, never shies away from examining itself, its conclusions and the accuracy of the beliefs it encourages. It may not submit itself easily to such tests but it will given time and the impetus of novelty. Kuhn’s essay provides a means by which one might acquire much insight into the workings of science and the scientific community and it provides a celebration of the many crises that have pushed science, and therefore humanity, forward in thought and understanding.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I find myself in agreement with Kuhn’s conclusions about the ways in which the scientific community reacts to and eventually assimilates novel discoveries. Science, indeed, has been forced to concede long-held beliefs about the universe in the presence of new evidence which did not fit with old paradigms. The case of the evolution of life, where scientists once worked mightily to ensure that there was some room for theology, is one such instance. In the face of Darwin’s observations, science was forced to accept a new paradigm where the nature of living organisms was changed not by providence but by the environments in which they lived. More importantly than Darwin’s impact on theological theories of evolution, or the lack thereof, however, was the concept that evolution was not a goal-driven process (p. 171). This conflicted not only with the theologians of Darwin’s time, but with the accepted scientific theories, the paradigm, of biology as well. No longer was the march of life seen as a march forward toward any particular destination. It had now been more accurately described as a process dictated by the situations of individual organisms rather than the result of some grand design. There was no particular better or worse aspect to the wildlife on the Galapagos evolving to fit the islands on which they lived, the modifications inherited by way of natural selection simply flowed from the natural environment and, given a different environment, they would change again.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   From that new paradigm and from the practitioners of normal science who worked and continue to work within it came modern medicine, agricultural practices and many, many more achievements that are directly traceable to the current paradigm where life is believed to have evolved into its present state over billions of years of slow, cumulative changes. Without the flexibility to change the existing paradigm, we may have found ourselves unavailed of the knowledge of the double-helix, the methods by which bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and the roots of genetic disease. As Kuhn points out, a radical paradigm shift such as that started by Darwin is necessary for a scientific revolution but the work of those practicing normal science, the geneticist working in the lab, the geologist using the paradigm that explains how a layer of rock strata may be assigned a probable age, the physicist whose work allows for technology such as carbon dating, are all as necessary for the acquisition of a better and more accurate understanding of the universe as is the revolution itself. And, further, that paradigm-driven research is the usual means by which revolutions in the scientific paradigm come to pass.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   That puzzle-solving work of the normal scientist will always draw some to the practice of science. The allure of finding a solution, of one’s research becoming part of the evidence that defines the current scientific understanding of the universe is a powerful one and one that should be encouraged. Normal science may have its elements of drudgery and it could be characterized as only confirming what is already known but that would be inaccurate. Science forms theories based on facts. The power of science to constantly discover new facts about our universe has for a long time been a source of hope and inspiration to humanity as a whole. However, the work of better refining our understanding is of equal value. Science must keep an open mind while continuing to adhere to the paradigms that have provided the best answers. Kuhn’s observant, thoughtful and enlightening essay provides a means for practitioners to better understand the importance of both. References Kuhn, T. (1991). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rd Ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Tanglewood Measurement and Validation Essay Example for Free

Tanglewood Measurement and Validation Essay I would like to provide my insights into the staffing measurements and validation for the company. Briefly, the practical significance is the extent to which predictor adds value to prediction of job success. It is assessed by examining the sign and resulting magnitude which validities above .15 are of moderate usefulness and validities above .30 are of high usefulness. After reviewing the predictors of traditional selection which are education, work experience and interview score, the conclusion that I have derived is that the statistical significance of these scores are very medium, ranging from 0. 03 to 0.32 of all the areas. The strongest validities of the predictors happen to be work experience that measured against performance with a correlation of 0.22 with 0.01 p-value and 0.25 correlation and 0.01 p-value in promotion potential. Interview score, correlated the highest at the measure of promotion potential 0.32 with a p-value of 0.01. Factoring Tanglewood’s philosophies, the only measures which are meeting the strategy of the company in the old method are: work experience and interview score. But, Tanglewood conducted a pilot study based on the resonations of poor performance in which 10 of the stores based in the Seattle area where all administered new selection tools and they were further compared against the traditional selection method for statistical significance. This study contained 832 applicants for hirings in the Store associate positions. From the conclusion, I derive the highest validities came from the retail knowledge, biodata, applicant exam predicators. These measures rated the highest when it came to performance and promotion potential whereas the other factors remained low to medial (Citizenship/Absence). For the outcome that Tanglewood, is looking for I think the measures should be for hiring process should be: retail knowledge, biodata, and applicant exam.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Frederick Douglass Escape from Slavery

Frederick Douglass Escape from Slavery Option #1: Writing Summaries: Frederick Douglass Escape from Slavery September 3, 1838 Frederick Bailey started risky journey of his life. 20 years old slave made an escape from his master in Baltimore, and with new found freedom came a new name that was Frederick Douglass. During his journey to freedom Douglass was able to avoid slave capturers from Maryland a slave state at the time, Philadelphia, and New York. Among the many obstacles Douglass encounters during his escape, the most unusual one is when he witnessed slave capturers that were of the same skin color as him. One would find it odd that blacks would capture and send other black individuals back to their slave holders. Money would be a major factor that influenced black individuals to partake in capturing slaves. In Frederick Douglass short essay My Escape from Slavery, Douglass discusses the obstacles he had to overcome during his escape from slavery. The major theme of Douglasss essay is his individual experience during his escape to free a state. He creates imagery that allows the reader to experience his dangerous journey without physically going through what he experienced. Slave owners targeted free blacks to hire because at the time many free blacks were living in poverty stricken areas and were among the financially unfit. Free blacks had families and children of their own and needed to provide for their loved ones. A reader looks at the action as unjust, but black capturers saw the job opportunity as a way to provide for their families. Black capturers would view runaway slaves as fugitives and saw it was their job to capture them. They would not let the similar color of skin that the two may share come in between their way of earning money. Frederick Douglas journey began in Baltimore, Maryland. Douglas would then take a train to Philadelphia. In order to board the train without being captured Douglass acted as a sailor carrying around Seamans protection papers that he received from an old acquaintance. The climax of Douglass story comes when the Conductor at the train station analyzes Douglass seaport papers. Douglas knows it is at this time when his life can make a dramatic change. If the conductor toughly looks at Douglass seaports papers and realizes the individuals described on the paper does not fit the physical characteristics of Douglass. He could face criminal charges as well as being sent to his former slave holder. Fortunately, the conductor lets Douglass board the train not focusing on the physical features of the gentlemen in which the seaport papers describe. Douglas will go through many more checkpoints in Delaware, Philadelphia where slave catchers were most vigilant but, no danger was as evident as the Maryland Boarding. When reaching New York he felt a great deal of relief. New York was a free state and after all the obstacles he had overcome to get to New York for the moment his dreams and hopes as a child was filled. He escaped the slave terrorirries and now was excited to start a new life, one of prosperity. Unfortunately Douglass dream was not fully accomplished just yet. Upon his arrival in New York, Douglass met another escaped slave that told him New York was full of southerners returning from the Northern watering places; that the colored people of New York were not to be trusted, that they were hired men of his skin color who would betray him for a few dollars.that they were hired men ever on the lookout for fugitives; that he must trust no man and never think of going either upon wharves or into any colored boarding house, for all such places closely watched. The black individual who Douglass encounters in New York established money as the main influence that drove blacks to capture runaway slaves. Free black individuals in this era lived in the most poverty stricken areas. Many black men had families to take care of, children to nourish and their lack of education made jabs untrainable. Free blacks had resort to any kind of job to earn money and provide for their family. Slave capturing was a prosperous business for blacks individuals at the time and they too full advantage. Frederic k Douglass escape from slavery finally comes to an end when he arrives in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Douglass was assured that no slave holder could take out a slave in New Bedford by Nathan Johnson. Johnson was a major influence in Douglass life after his arrival. Johnson a former laborer his self and citizen of the grand old commonwealth of Massachusetts. with his connections with government officials he was able to acquire citizenship papers for Douglass and assured that he was now a citizen of New Bedford and he wouldnt have to worry about slave capturer trying to take him of the state of Massachusetts because it was against the law. When forming the documentation with Douglasss new identity, Johnson changed Frederick last name from bailey to Douglass. As a slave he was known as Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. The name Frederick Douglass would follow him for the next forty years. As he worked as a laborer for a few years to support his family. He would then go on new endeavors to help abolish slavery in the near future. Summary of Douglass story, is although he escaped slavery there were thousands of other black slaves who did not make it and suffered major consequences consisting of sometimes death. The diction Douglass uses in his short story appeals to the readers senses, his dramatic scenes that capture his escape allows readers to see what he saw during the dangerous journey. One can feel how scared douglass was when entering new states that were surrounded by slave catchers. Douglass characterization of individuals he encountered through his journey enabled readers to imagine what he viewed. Douglass always looked back on September 3, 1838. The day when his free life began and until he died he celebrated the date in place of his unknown birthday.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Expression of Self-worth in Homer’s Iliad Essay -- Iliad essays

Expression of Self-worth in Homer’s Iliad The story of the Trojan War as played out in the Iliad is perhaps most gripping for the focus on the role of the individual; the soul is struck by the very concept of a decade-long war and a city-state razed to the ground for one man’s crime and one woman’s beauty. As such, the dynamic between Helen, Paris, and the Trojan people they have doomed is a fascinating one. For while Prince Paris is hated by all of Troy, his right to keep Helen is challenged by none. This is seen mostly clearly in Book III, after Paris has been spirited away to safety by the goddess Aphrodite; the book ends with Trojans and Greeks alike united in scorn for Paris and his consort. In Book VII, however, at the war council of the Trojans, when a defiant Paris refuses to yield his prize, no man questions his right to do so. This puzzling contrast, between the anger of the many against the crimes of the one and the rights of the one against the will of the many, presents insight into key themes of Homer’s epic. The passages in Books III and VII highlight the unique way in which the Iliad focuses on property rights as perhaps the highest expression of individual self-worth, the violation of which demands complete redress. Book III paints Paris at his lowest: a posturing coward contemptible in his weakness. When he seems in danger of losing a duel against his rival Meneleus—a duel that promises to end the war without further bloodshed—Paris is snatched up by his protector Aphrodite and promptly forgets all about the two armies camped at the walls. The reader is thus united with both armies in scorn for the prince when Homer describes Paris and Helen losing themselves in lust while the fragile treaty strai... ... domain of his property that they are willing to die to uphold it, even for a prince they despise. In the relationship between Paris and the Trojan people with respect to his ownership of Helen, Homer demonstrates the subtleties of a culture that celebrated the heroism of the individual while simultaneously acknowledging the power of the fates in human affairs. To strenuously fight for one’s rights in the face of opposition is to court disaster, as Agamemnon, Achilles, and Paris all discover, and yet in doing so, one is able to rise above the herd of lesser men and become a truly heroic individual. It is a remarkable irony of Homeric Greece that the path to immortality often began with an obsession over the seemingly petty matters of material ownership and property. Works Cited 1. Homer, Iliad, trans. Robert Fagles (New York: Penguin Books, 1990).

Friday, July 19, 2019

Fishing †The Best Hobby Essay -- Essays Papers Sports Recreation

Fishing – The Best Hobby Work—just the word is enough to make me nauseous sometimes. Look at the definition of the word: work—effort exerted to do or make something; labor, toil. It isn’t exactly the definition of fun. Okay, granted work isn’t always awful. There are plenty of people who like their jobs, and work can even be fun. But for the most part, we all know that we’d rather be doing just about anything other than working. Luckily for us, we don’t work all the time. No, we sleep, eat, drink, and have fun. How do we have fun? Well, some of us might get our pleasure from eating or drinking, sometimes a little too often. Others of us might have fun spending time with our companions or family, but usually when we think of having fun, we think of actually doing something: playing a game, reading a book, going swimming, whatever it may be. We call these ways that we have fun our hobbies. There are quite possibly an infinite number of hobbies. Who knows how many d ifferent ways there are for people to have fun. When it comes to me and my hobbies, however, there is one in particular that stands out above the rest. Fishing is definitely the best way to have fun. Fishing is the best hobby there is. Why am I so excited about fishing? Why am I so certain that it is my favorite hobby? While I could go on and on about the joys of fishing, there are three major reasons why I think it’s so great. They are that it is a relatively inexpensive hobby, it is very easy, and, most importantly, there are so many ways, and so many people who can have fun doing it. Fishing is cheap. If you’ve ever looked at a bait and tackle magazine, you might be thinking, yeah, right. You know, you’ve looked in one of those magazines and seen rods and reels that cost over a thousand dollars and lures that are upwards of twenty bucks, just for one lure. If you are thinking this, then you’re right. If you want to fish with professional quality equipment, you are going to spend those kinds of prices. But that’s true for any hobby; professional-grade equipment is going to be very expensive. An official major league baseball, identical to the ones they use in games, costs over ten dollars. When was the last time any of you went out and spent ten dollars for a baseball to play catch with. No, I’m not talking about being a professional fisherman; admittedly, that isn’t cheap. W... ...ve as much fun just riding in the boat as you do catching fish. Another person might think of fishing from a boat, but that person’s perfect fishing trip might be floating in a canoe down a country river. Believe it or not, fishing can even be fun for people who are petrified of the water. Some of the biggest fish ever caught are hooked from riverbanks, fishing piers, or bridges, without the fisherman getting so much as a toe wet. This is why fishing is so great, and I’m not going to even bother comparing it to another hobby, because there is none like it. No, there is no other hobby that can be enjoyed by so many people, in so many places, for so many reasons. As I said before, there are an infinite number of hobbies that people have and it’s very unlikely fishing is your favorite hobby. I’m sure you can spit right back in my face any number of reasons why your hobby is so great, and you’d probably be right. But before you do that, stop and think about this. Is your hobby or any other hobby you can think of as inexpensive, as easy to learn, or as enjoyed by so many different people as fishing? I doubt it. That is why I love fishing so much; that is why fishing is the best.

Marijuana Use Should be Legal Essay -- Legalization of Marijuana

Marijuana Use Should be Legal The issue of the legalization of Marijuana is a never-ending battle that the country will never fully win. Marijuana should be legalized because it is a large part of the drug war, which will never come to an end. Society is in the midst of a time of anguish and skepticism of what will become of the nation. With all of the problems happening around us, the government and officials should begin to realize that the time and effort spent on battling the drug, marijuana, could be better used in other areas. One of the first issues of the legalization of marijuana is its comparison to alcohol. Since 1937, marijuana has been prohibited as a legal drug in the United States: â€Å"If the goal of marijuana prohibition is to stop Americans from using it, then it has failed, just like the other prohibition failed to make America a (dry) country† (Wikman). There have been many studies performed to try to prove that the effects of marijuana are worse than those of alcohol. Unfortunately, many of the studies found that marijuana is not as bad as many believe it to be. If one were to compare alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, it is found that the one with the least addictive power is marijuana (Schlosser, 1994, p.41). Alcohol has the potential to cause cirrhosis and tobacco is linked to lung cancer and heart disease yet, smoking marijuana is not directly related to any life- threatening diseases (Wikman). The country’s drug problem is also hurting the prison system. Prisons are already overcrowded and by incarcerating innocent people for minor drug violations, law enforcement is adding to prison population. The population of Americans living in prison has inc... ...marijuana would give our government more money and time to invest in other problems facing our society and nation. Works Cited â€Å"Feds Begin to Bend on Medical Marijuana.† The Science of Medical Marijuana Oct.2001. 4 Oct.2001 â€Å" Grinspoon, Lester. â€Å"Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine.† 1997: Roesch Lib., University of Dayton., Dayton, OH. 1 Oct. 2001 www.netlibrary.com â€Å"Legalization of Marijuana Long Overdue.† Oct. 2001. 9 Oct. 2001 â€Å"New, Emerging Evidence of Marijuana’s Medical Efficacy.† The Science of Medical Marijuana Oct. 2001. 4 Oct. 2001 Wikman, Eric. â€Å"Prohibition and Marijuana: History Does Repeat.† Marijuana Policy Project 1995. 2 Oct. 2001

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Customer Service in the Transport Logistics

The South African transport industry is one that is changing. In terms of Customer service there are certain companies that are excelling and are able to provide service that gains them a greater measure of customer satisfaction. Good customer service is an integral part of any business or organization. The process of managing stock, warehouse inventory, and freight transportation is at the heart of logistics. Logistics is the management and coordination of moving inventory from its origination to its ultimate destination. The goal of a logistics team is to find a way to do this process in the most streamlined, cost efficient method possible. The overall High costs in the logistics industry though are a cause for concern as they hinder the ability of organisations to provide maximum efficiency, to their customers thus not achieving maximum customer service. We will discuss what customer service is and its importance in the transport industry. We will look at the challenges facing the South African Transport industry as well as current developments going into the world cup and what these developments mean for the future of the South African transport industry. Customer Service is defined by Vogt and Pienaar as â€Å"the integrated series of activities between a supplier and a buyer, which enhance the sale and facilitate the effective use of the suppliers’ products. When rendered effectively, customer service is the overriding logistics supply chain function that can create demand and retain loyalty. In a broader sense customer service is the measure of how well the logistics system is performing in providing time and place utility for a product or service (Pienaar & Vogt; 2009, 25). According to Christopher and Peck (2003) customer service includes points of contact between a supplier and buyer also including tangible and intangible elements. Logistics performance is extremely important in achieving customer satisfaction. Importance of Customer service The importance of customer service in any organisation and the transport industry as a whole cannot be over emphasized. Customer service is the most critical aspect of the whole supply and distribution chain (Ron). According to Karl it has been proven in surveys that most customers do not come back to certain business establishment because of the indifferences they might have had with the owner, manager and employees regardless if they like the product or service the business renders. Every business management must recognize the reality that customer service is imperative in the success of the business. This ensures customer loyalty and commitment to the business. The company’s ability to focus on customers needs rather than on their own will ensure that company is cost effective and efficient at all times. Characteristics of customer service in transportation There are a number of factors that make up customer service and specifically for the transport industry these include, dependability, time in transit, flexibility of mode chosen, loss and damage performance of the mode, and ability of the transport to adapt to the changing customer needs. (Craig, 2004) Most customers are more interested about receiving their delivered goods on time than whether the person delivering the goods has a cheerful face. Successful companies try to under-promise and over deliver in terms of delivery time. This allows the firms to capture their customers ensuring that the company’s reputation is not jeopardized so firms need to ensure that their lead times are accurate. Customer service excellence is about reliability and consistency. Reliability means that the suppliers commitment to maintain a promised delivery schedule and to advise customers if deliveries subsequently cannot be made on time. This shows that the suppliers are reliable and keep the customer at ease. It is better to switch to a more expensive but reliable supplier than to rely on a relatively inexpensive but erratic supplier. Customer satisfaction is highest when a customer knows they can rely on their goods to be delivered at the specified time and that the goods will be delivered. Companies such as Manline offer customers the service of being able to track their goods in transit through a customer call centre where they can monitor their cargo through real time satellite tracking of their vehicles. Such services allow customers to be more at ease. In South Africa overall this is a concern in the transport industry as the rate of hijacking is high and thus the risk of goods not arriving is high. This means that in South Africa it is imperative that an organisation gets the best security technology in order to meet customer needs. The amount of time in-transit is another important element in customer service within the transport industry. Goods need to be transported and delivered as quickly as possible as customers need their cargo on hand as soon as possible. The flexibility of any mode of transport is another important element in customer service. If an organisation is to provide the best service they need to react to a customer’s changing needs. In the South African transport industry it is sometimes difficult for there to be immediate changes in customer requirements as the most used mode of transportation is road transportation. This means that service delivery in any other form is sometimes difficult or unreliable. The idea is to move goods as quickly, efficiently and cost effectively as possible. JIT (Just-In-Time) deliveries are a powerful force in the modern epoch. Deliveries are getting smaller but more frequent. We are moving into a situation where there is a continuous flow of goods from source to final delivery. Those carriers who are able to adapt to the changes in the market and accommodate a wide set of logistical competencies will be the winners in the new age of transport. Traditional haulers must change their ideas of what industry they belong to and face the challenges of the new order. Fast-moving, 2005) Challenges affecting customer service in South Africa Within the last couple of years the country has been able to address some of the issues within the transport industry, though there is still much that needs to be addressed. There have been various challenges that have and still face South Africa’s growing transportation and physical distribution industry. One of those challenges is that with increased globalization the local industry has to compete wi th foreign industry. Customers want the most reliable yet inexpensive way of transporting their goods and foreign companies are doing this, making it difficult for local companies to stay relevant. Another major challenge which has been addressed to an extent by some companies and aspects of the transport industry is that of technology. Customers want to know the exact specifications of the transportation of their goods. They want to know time of departure, time of arrival, amount of time in transit, and even the route of transit. This then means that the best tracking technology is required. In South Africa this high technology has been slow in infiltrating the transport industry. Devices for tracking and monitoring load carriers using real time satellite tracking is not something that is widely used in the industry. A good example of a company that is doing this though is Manline . This Company has set up a 24-hour control centre operated by fleet trackers that constantly monitor all vehicles and also to apply effective route rationalizing techniques and maximize vehicle productivity and utilization. (Manline 2010). According to the findings of the ‘Research Report for the Infrastructure Inputs Sector Strategy’, commissioned by the Presidency, and compiled by Sudeo International Business consultants. One of the other major challenges facing the South African Transportation industry going into 2010 is that freight volumes travelling by all modes of transport will have to be suppressed for the duration of the world cup. This will have considerable impact on the logistics industry as a whole. Ways to improve and Developments in 2010 The challenges that face the South African industry are ones that can be remedied. The 2010 World cup in South Africa has become a catalyst event in developments in the country and the transportation industry as it is one of the most integral parts of achieving efficient customer delivery and thus achieving high customer satisfaction. An important component of ultimate improvement would be making on-time deliveries every time. When a product is ready for use, the clock starts to count down how long it will take to complete the cycle from completing the manufacturing of a product to the consumption of that product. The longer it takes to get the product into the hands of the consumer, the more money a company loses. It is important that the products are delivered quickly and on time to the customers in order to maintain the company’s customers and keep them loyal. So how does one streamline this process? By implementing a logistics plan of action, a company can do just that. Larger manufacturers will hire a logistics team that is responsible for the routing of goods from the company, to the freight transportation company, and finally to the end client. They will have a database system to track all inventory. They will monitor inventory levels to make sure that a backlog of supply occurs. An additional responsibility of transportation and logistics specialist is to account for accurate transportation times. It is vital for companies to be able to rely and trust that their shipments will arrive in a timely manner. Being well organized accounts for much of this success, but the ability to transport the shipments quickly is also important. Because the country's infrastructure has improved with better maintained highways and interstates, transportation times have decreased. Freight transportation is more reliable now because companies can more accurately predict when a shipment will arrive. Some trucking companies will even guarantee the precise day and hour that a delivery will be made. This is very important because customer satisfaction is often based around on-time deliveries and accurate accounting of merchandise. This has also helped to reduce the cost of shipping freight, since trucking companies now have reliable, more direct routes to utilize. It indirectly affects cost because better roads create less wear and tear on shipping vehicles. It is important for the organization to answer all e-mail and phone calls from customers within an hour. If possible, the owner of the business, personally take care of the problem. This will show that the organization cares about customers and will improve the service quality of the organisation. This is an important area of improvement in South Africa as clients would be able to trust load carriers as they would be in constant contact. It will give customers peace of mind if they can continuously monitor their cargo themselves and also stay in contact with their company. The organisation should offer as many contact methods as possible. Allow customers to contact you by e-mail. Hyperlink the e-mail address so customers won't have to type it. Offer toll free numbers for phone and fax contacts. Some trucking companies have contact numbers written on their trucks so that the customers can be able to contact that particular company when they need their service. The organisation should invite customers to company meetings, luncheons, workshops or seminars in the meeting the manager can inform the customers about when the products will be available in the market because it is important to give customers more than they expect. Create special events for the customers like parties, barbecue's, dances etc. This will make them feel important when the company include them in regular business operations and special events (Larry Dotson, 2004) If a logistic team only concentrates on reducing freight cost, they could potentially lower customer service quality. Therefore, the goal of a logistics manager, or third party administrator, is to find a balance between cost and customer satisfaction. They must also be able to provide accurate tracking information, correctly estimate shipping cost, and be able to calculate delivery dates and times. By being organized, keeping cost low for the clients, and by making on time deliveries, freight management can help control the overall customer satisfaction of their clients. Reducing cost in freight transport is great, but if you can improve customer service at the same time, that’s even better. Logistics software can help reduce costs in freight transportation and logistics while improving customer service quality. (Barone, 2003) In the South African industry research shows that there should be plans to shift back to rail-freight and reduce that of road as the overall cost of damage to roads will eventually filter down in costs to the customer. Although currently there are greater cost savings and cost competition in using road freight. Measuring Customer Service. Measuring customer service in logistics for any organization is crucial to determine whether the organization is doing what the customers are expecting. The needs of the customers differ to a large extent and the reason being is not all customers are treated the same. Since the needs of the customers differ to a large extent, organizations end up knowing so little in general about the customers’ real requirements hence they end up setting the service levels that are too high and hence too costly (Ballou, 1978). The high service levels result also in higher distribution costs and therefore the overall price of a product. Even though the aim of any organization is to meet the needs of each and every customer, the organizations should however try to generalize about customer service as much as possible to drive down the costs. The problem that is encountered while trying to measure the customer service is what factors to measure exactly. There has always been a contradiction on whether the service levels should be determined by the customers or be set by the organizations. The firms normally select factors that are easier to measure such as order handling, order picking times whereas customers might be interested or concerned about the order transmittal and delivery which tend to be more difficult to measure. Therefore to determine those factors or aspects that the customers value the most, the organizations normally use the performance model (Murphy and Wood, 2004). The performance model is a questionnaire that the customers fill on receipt of their orders; its main objective is to determine the percentage of times the firm accomplishes specific goals and objectives. Managers normally set some visible goals against which performance can be measured. These come in two forms; standards and policy statements (Ballou, 1978). The managers might for example set a standard whereby the target is to ensure a 95% in-stock rate, filling customer orders within 24 hours of receipt or a one day order cycle time for all customers staying close to the organization. Against these standards managers can be able to tell if they are meeting and exceeding the customer service levels the organization had set. I should be further noted that it is inefficient and costly to provide more service than the customer expect or requires hence the firm should try to meet to break-even. Some companies take customer service seriously in a sense that they even have the written printed statements. The policy statements promise the customers that the company intends to act in a specified way with regard to service. There are five ways in which the organizations measure or test the customer service levels (Gwilliam M, 2008). Firstly, if the organization is able to fill the orders then it must be meeting the customers’ expectations. Normally the acceptable standard is the 95% fill rate whereby it is only 5% of the time when there is stock out. Secondly it is the delivery of the goods on time. It is vital to measure how fast the organization can deliver the products that have been ordered. If most of the time the goods are not delivered at the targeted date then major changes need to be done. Furthermore, it is important to measure how successfully the customers’ concerns can be resolved. Since the customers use the enquiries to express their concerns, the proportion of the number of customer enquiries that have been effectively resolved can be used as a means of measuring customer service given the number of enquiries that have been received. Another way to measure customer service can be how quick the organization responds to the customers’ mails, emails, and phone calls. If the organization is able to respond to the customers within 24 hrs than the level of customer service is up to standard. The last way of measuring the customer service in logistics is by letting the customer decide. The customers can let the organization know if it is fulfilling the needs of its customers. The customer surveys that focus on the customer service issues can be conducted and from the response of the customer surveys the organization can be able to improve on the areas that the customers are not happy with. Once the level of customer service is known it becomes easier to control it. When the level of customer service is below the standard the customers become dissatisfied, however if the level of customer service is above or exceed what the customers require it increases the costs of the organization. Control is therefore defined as a process of taking corrective action when measurement indicates that the goals or objectives of customer service are not being achieved. For example, if the delivery targeted dates are not met there might be a need of changing the mode of transport or simply the route being used. Firstly the service level standards are set, and then the actual is compared to the standard. If there is a variation then the corrective measures need to be done so that the standard is met. At times the reason why the standard is not met is because it was set too high that it cannot be matched, in this case the standard itself needs to be revised. Conclusion â€Å"The success of South Africa’s infrastructure growth challenges will be dependent on the ability of logistics infrastructure and, in particular, transportation, to cope with the demands placed on it. †(Engineering news, 2007). In the future the quality of customer service will be the main determining factor in the survival of a company as customers become more aware of product offerings that will suit them. The transportation industry in South Africa is changing, with greater emphasis being placed on the customer and their level of satisfaction. This will bring a greater move forward in the industry that will see South Africa competing on the world stage in terms of transportation. Customer service is vital to the survival of any company, organisation or industry and establishing and implementing customer service policies that work is what will lead organisations and industries to greater growth and success.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Importance of data security and data safety Essay

To prevent companies from employ or passing on confidential learning to other companies without the consent of the person who the selective training is nigh, companies leave need to nourish the culture. With the popularity of the loot there are opportunities for thieves to steal their in the flesh(predicate) information. So the government set a law (data aegis act) which is utilise to protect massess rights concerning how data is used and you likewise induce the right to go out much(prenominal) information and have whatever errors corrected. Also make-up leave behind pauperism to keep data confidential because it leave al 1 non want its competitors to know how the strain is going.List the 8 principles of the Data safeguard bout The Data Protection Act says the personal data should 1. Be adequate, germane(predicate) and non excessive. For example college should keep students detail and details essential be that what is needed and nothing to a gre ater extent. 2. Be tasteful in accordance with the data opened right. For example the person that the data refers to have the right to read the information or so him/her and the ecesis should provide hem/her with information they need. 3. Be accurate and be unbroken up to date. There is a craft to keep it up to date, for example to qualifying an address when battalion move.4. Not be kept longer than necessary. For example it is fine to keep information for original space of time just now it would be wrong(p) to keep information about by customers longer than a few age at most 5. Be obtained and svelte for limited purposes. For example the organization must use the data notwithstanding when in the sort it is described and it must not use it for whatsoever other purpose. 6. Be just. This includes retentivity the information plunk fored up and away from any unauthorised penetration. It would be wrong to leave personal data open to be viewed by adept any genius . 7.Not be transferred to countries outside europium without adequate protection. Unless the country that the data is organism sent to has a suitable data protection law 8. Be touch on fairly and lawfully. For example if you put your bills at bank no one washbasin transfer your money without your permission. (a) What is the dispute amidst the net, Intranet and Extranet? (P8) Internet Are national ne dickensrks that bear the substance absubstance abuser to use any of its facilities. Intranet and Extranet is identical a private internet. It is like a website that is notwithstanding irritateible to the members of a line of reasoning or companionship.The different betwixt Intranets and Extranet is Intranet al togetherow the members of arranging to inlet the get at the dodging with an organisation. Extranet Allow the members of organisation to access the remains from different location and only by the users who have been give access rights. (b) * What is a brow ser? Is information processing corpse program that can read web rapscallions, by d acceptloading HTML code and that allows the browser to refund the code to the web page. A browser displays web pages, keeps track of where youve been, and remembers the places you want to arrest to, the most used browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.Describe the role of a browser when using the Internet, Intranet and Extranet Browser allows the slew to access information, view images, hear music and watch video, in the term of intranet and extranet the browser allows user to piece documents, access databases and allow group work. * Describe the role of netmail when using internet communications. You can rank electronic mail to an individual or to a group of good deal at the similar time, you can gain mailing numerate so that you can write a message and send it automatically to pattern of people.Also you can send files such as pictures, word document and get going as attachments to your message. (a) List major terrors to an organisation that could happen while using the Internet. (P9) 1. Hacking (use to steal the personal details and private files of club) 2. The banquet of viruses (use to revoke or damage the primary(prenominal) files of attach to) 3. Internet fraud (taking credit twit details from customers) 4. Spay ware (is biggest threat in the ready reckoner system which allows psyche to log into your computing device and use it for their own purpose) 5. e-mail ( sending unwanted messages oddly commercial advertising) mark of assignment In this assignment, I have to do inquiry and get information on the enormousness of data security and data safety. M research must be from ICT generators and non ICT sources and by using the evidence that I bring in I should explain the importance of keeping customer information confidential, the main provision of data protection act, the role of browsers and email in internet communication s, the difference between internet, intranet and extranet, the major threats to organization from internet and finally a poster that explains the importance of data safety and data security.The assignment will also gather key skills portfolio evidence. M5 fleshly certificate Use of security guards, locks, built doors, windows and walls depending on what is being protected. Use of ICT to lend oneself security entry on doors, and protected areas of buildings i. e. swipe cards, fingerprint ID, voice recognition. Firewall This is a security device, which acts as a ace entry/exit point for information and access to a computer system. All traffic must pass through the firewall and therefore a system is secure from external threats.A firewall prevalently sits between the internal ne twork of an organisation and access by the internet. Virus Protection It is usual for systems to have close to form of anti-virus packet installed and running in the background. All files and devices introduced to the system would be scanned, any attempts to alter system files would be blocked, and notification made to the user/system administrator. Preventing the use of floppy disks is a good method of eliminating one source of potential virus problems. Identification of Users A system of user IDs and passwords is a simple method of preventing unauthorised power accessing the system.These should be managed by the system administrator. With this, only just about users will have access to accredited programmes and data therefore increase the level of security on in the raw data. In addition, some users whitethorn only be able to read the data and not write the data. Other users may not have the superpower to edit out or even to access certain files. Encryption software the data may be encrypted (coded) into a form, which can only then be decoded by the intend user. If the data falls into the wrong hands, it will be meaningless.Backups To guard against the vent of data, b ackups should be regularly made. These backups should be stored in a separate place, preferably in a fireproof environment. Passwords software Password protection usually involves a person typing in A User denomination to nominate the person. A Password to identify the person. He should be the only one to know what it is. Computer viruses which are programs that destroy the way computer exploits without the knowledge of the user, there are huge numbers of viruses some are extremely malicious with the ability to delete or damage files and programs. close to of the threats that they cause to computer systems include Deleting data on the hard disk of the organisation computer system. Enabling hackers to hijack the organisation system and use it for their own purposes. How do viruses spread CDs and floppy disks containing infect documents. Emails containing infected attachments. Hackers who gain unauthorised access to computer systems for the purpose of stealing and corrupting da ta, also gaining access to financial information about the organisation business or their customers for the purposes of fraud.Security measures may include Each user should be given a user name and a password. Computer customs duty may be logged. Computers should be undo from a network when not in use. Use a firewall a computer running software, which detects hackers dialling in to a network. Spam authorised users downloading a web page or receiving an email with hidden participating content that attacks the organisation system or send sensitive information to unauthorised people. Organisation can stop feast of spam by using spam filtering software.Spy ware is software that is put on organisation computer when the employee visits certain websites, it is used to secretly gather information about the organisation usage and sends it back to advertiser or other concerned high society to tracking the organisation system use . it can also slowly down or crashes the organisation c omputer Pop up Many fraternity advertisers on the Internet by using windows that pop up in the spunk of computer screen to display a message. They faculty also open when you confabulate a link or thrust on a Web site, and they might open either over or under the window, you wish to view.Some pop-up windows can contain inappropriate content or can be a way for employee of organisation to accidentally download precarious software (called spyware or adware) onto organisation computer. assault of copyright Internet users are not allowed to copy or print some internet materials such as video, music, files and photos without the permission of copyright holder and sometimes they may have to pay a permit to do so. Theft and fraud attribute card fraud for example people can steal the details on credits card and using them illicitly to buy goods.Sole principal A sole trader is the actual owner of a business, a sole trader also has eternal liability. All the debts of the business are the debts of the owner. They can not issues shares . The whole meaning behind Sole manner that she/he does not have partners. (e. g. galvanizing repair, picture framing, photography, diving instruction, retail shops, and hotels) fusion A Partnership can be liable for all debts, it is easy to setup, but is also inexpensive to form.Forming federation requires an placement that is some times called partnership concord between two to twenty individuals which entitles them to con give voicely own and carry on a trader business together. A partnership is a contract between two or more(prenominal) persons who agree to puddle talent and money and share wampum or loss. Private limited company A Private limited company has limited liability (the shareholders cannot loose more than their original shareholdings), and a minimum of two shareholders and a maximum of fifty shareholders. It cannot tenderise its shares to the public.A private limited company is treated as a sub judice entity. Public limited company A company which may have an unlimited number of shareholders and offer its shares to the wider public. (e. g. Cadbury and Tesco) Multi-National company A company that does business in more than one country, usually by panorama up branch offices. Tesco Characteristics Type of company Tesco is an world(prenominal) retailer and is a publicly owned company (Public Limited play along Plc). Products including food and non-food business, personal finance, internet shopping, electrical items, home entertainment, toys, sports equipment, and many more. increase / loss Tescos Profit and release 2005 2004 gross revenue at net selling prices 37,070 33,557 disturbance including share of joint ventures 34,353 31,050 Less share of joint ventures turnover (379) (236) operational lettuce/(loss) 1,949 1,735 Share of operating profit/(loss) of joint ventures and associates 130 97 Net profit/(loss) on presidential term of fixed assets 53 (9) Profit on ordinary a ctivities ahead taxation 1,962 1,600 Underlying profit forward net profit/(loss) on disposal of fixed assets, integration costs and saving grace amortisation 2,0291,708.Size of company Tesco operates 923 stores and employs 240,000 people , there are 639 branches in spectacular Britain and 182 in the rest of Europe .Location they operate in UK, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Thailand, South Korea, chinaware and the Republic of Ireland Purpose of company to create value for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty. Aims built good non-food sales expanded into retail services and exploited e-commerce successfully. Objective 1. To deliver a consistently strong customer offer. 2.Making their shopping trip as easy as possible. 3. Constantly want to reduce their prices to help customer expend less. Logo Cadbury Characteristics Type of company is an international retailer and is a publicly owned company (Public Limited Company Plc).Products hot chocolate and drin ks brands. Profit / loss Cadbury Profit and Loss i (Millions) 2006 i (Millions) 2005 Turnover 6,508. 00 6,085. 00 Operating Profit / (Loss) 1,003. 00 825. 00 Net Interest (188. 00) (205. 00) Pretax Profit 843. 00 642. 00 Post Tax Profits 703. 00 497. 00 come in Dividend Paid n/a n/a.Retained Profit / (Loss) for the financial course of instruction n/a n/a Size of company they operate in more than 35 countries and they employs over 55,000 people Location Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa and Asia Pacific. Purpose of company the organization work together to create brands people love. Aims 1. Deliver shareholder performance. 2. Ensure their capabilities are best in class. 3. Reinforce reputation with employees and society objective 1. Responding to consumer needs quickly. 2. Grow shareowner value. 3. line and develop the best kind of people.