Thursday, January 30, 2020
War Letters Essay The war letters, written in different years, not only revealed different emotions of the writers but also gave some hints of what circumstances and danger, they were facing during those times. These letters also expressed their dreams, motivations, purposes, beliefs and the things that they stand or fight for. The war letters, no matter in what time frames they were written, possess many themes in common such as: love, longing, pride, anxiety, hope and encouragement. Also, the people who wrote the letters were really proud and were always willing to sacrifice their lives for the country. They have been serving their country with honor, pride and dignity from the past up to present. However, still each letter is different from one another. They express different degrees of patriotism, affection, and different beliefs or stands and purpose. First, we will cite the similarities among the letters, their common themes and emotions expressed. Afterwards, we will differentiate each letter from one another in terms of their degrees in expression of patriotism, affection and other ideas. Lastly, we will compare three examples of war letters from the War on Terror. The letters were written by the family to the men in uniform who were deployed to certain places to engage with military activities to protect their nation and those written by the soldiers themselves for their family whom they have left, shared common themes. Affection, hope and love are the most common subject that these letters have (Gilderlehrman. org, 2006). The letters usually start with the lines about missing and longing for each other. These are one of the major conflicts and problems that they all deal with. Like what was said from the letter from Tonya Stives to his husband Army Master Sgt. Rahamon Phillips who has been in uniform for 16 years: Ã¢â¬Å"I just canÃ¢â¬â¢t figure out how not to miss you every day, all day. Nothing can prepare me for not missing you (militarycity. com). Ã¢â¬ The letters were also full of inspiring words and that expressing affection. They encourage and boost the self-esteem of the officers by telling them how proud they are of the soldiers. For example, Harman wrote a letter to his Uncle Albert to praise the bravery and dedication of his cousin, Thomas Garber during the Civil war on September 17, 1862 (virginia. edu). The messages from the family to the soldiers often made use of the term Ã¢â¬Å"heroÃ¢â¬ to refer to the recipients. Furthermore, they put more importance on the military work and duty than on their desire to be together. The family gave their full support for the soldiers. Moreover, all of them were martyrs who took the sacrifices optimistically. The families want the soldiers to stay safe and focus on their missions. Also, they thought and look at this separation in a positive way. For instance, they looked at it as a way to strengthen their relationship. The family who wrote the letters chose their words properly as not to hurt the feelings and not to make the soldiers worry in any case. Like for example, one of the letters from Holly to her husband Army Staff Sgt. Edward Nicorvo, described the disadvantages of not having her husband in their home but in a lighter way just as to put some humor on the letter (militarycity. com). The feeling of anxiety by the families left behind was never gone in the letters. They are always worried for their beloved heroes because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any idea to where he or she is right now and under what situations. Furthermore, of course, the letters wonÃ¢â¬â¢t end without expressing the excitement for the return of the officer. The other common purposes of the war letters are: to reminisce over moments together or moments right before they parted ways; to show that the recipient is remembered and to provide comfort; to assure him or her that he is not alone in that fight and that their prayers are always with him. We can observe in the letters in some aspects that time stands still. The year or decades when the letters were written were irrelevant upon looking at the basic messages of the letters. From the past up to the recent wars in America, the letters still revolved around the basic themes and still have the purposes stated above. They all expressed patriotism. The family expressed it in the way of showing support and understanding the soldiers in this fight. The soldiers, on the other hand, willingly sacrifice their time with their families and their very own lives. This reflects on the letter of Sullivan Balou to his wife expressing his fear about death and how he might not be able to spend time with their sons (civil-war. net). The soldiers have a common goal: They all fight to protect the freedom of the future generation. This is a very interesting passage which illustrates this: Ã¢â¬Å"I listened to an audio book on the way here, Ã¢â¬Å"No End Save Victory,Ã¢â¬ a collection of letters and stories from WW II. It got me thinking that this situation, and the people in it, is not that much different. They were citizen-soldiers, too. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to leave home, but they did. They lived under difficult situations. But they felt a sense of obligation, of duty, so they did the job they had to do. And got it done. Then they went back to their homes and their lives. And built the world we live in today. The same thing is going to happen here. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not so different (Sandy D. , a mobilized Air Force Reserve officer from Lubbock, Texas,). Ã¢â¬ The letters, although alike in many ways, still have differed from each other. First, they differ in the intensity of affection. When the recipient and the sender have been together for quite a long period of time, the letters have less affectionate words. They focus on updating the one deployed. Maybe this is because they are used of the separation. They also differ on the passion of the men in uniform to serve their country. Some soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ letter expressed less patriotic thoughts and focused more on the comforts that they missed at home. While some letters revealed many enthusiasms in serving the country. For example, is a letter from General Riedesel to his wife written in 1776 (Louise et al, 1867). He believed that God has placed him in his present calling. Second, only some of the letters have great sense of hope. Like that one written by Sgt. Gary Teal recently deployed to Kandahar, Afghanistan (militarycity. com). Some of the letters are not fully patriotic and are more concerned with themselves and personal worries: Ã¢â¬Å"How do I steel myself against the uncertainty that each day brings? How do I ensure that, when I fall asleep, sweet dreams of my loving wife await me instead of the conflict raging around me? How do I fill the hole in my heart caused by not being there to watch my son grow and experience the wonders of life? How do I pass to my son the values of honor and selfless service you gave me? (Army Capt. Clark C. Hatch for his father)Ã¢â¬ Next, only some of the letters stated affirmative words about the troop they have been working together. How wonderful the people they are with and what great family they have built together. I also noticed that gender role somehow, evolved from the 1860Ã¢â¬â¢s in comparison to the present. Before, male soldiers are more prominent and common. There were rarely or almost no female participants in the war. Like what we can see in the letters written by Thomas Lucas and family during the civil war (Sauerburger and Bayard, 2007). Nevertheless, six years ago (in 2003), there were many women in uniform deployed to Afghanistan and many participated in the Operation Enduring Freedom. Like the three daughters of Laurie Pocsi, a single mom and certified public accountant in Wayne, N. J (militarycity. com). Those are some of the similarities and differences of the war letters from different years. Now, I have read three different war letters during the War on terror or War on Terrorism (militarycity. com). One is from Marine Sgt. Tony Watkins who deployed in early November 2001 for Operation Enduring Freedom. The next one is from Marine Corps Reserve Lt. Col. Tom D. Barna for his son. Moreover, the last letter was from Lance Cpl. Joshua Phillips, who was based in Kandahar, Afghanistan, during Operation Enduring Freedom, for his family. These three letters have similarities and differences as well. They are similar to each other and to the other letters before if we are to consider the main message and common themes implied in the letters. These letters stated some things about longing for loved ones, affection, patriotism and updates. They differ in the fact that some letters are more dramatic and expressed love of the country more convincingly. Also, they differ on their implied purposes of fighting against the terrorists. As illustrations let me share some of the significant lines from the three letters. This one is from Tony Watkins: Ã¢â¬Å"The emotions of seeing this large symbol of what we are here for was almost more than I could hold down. This flag made of simple cloth re-emphasized to all who saw it that they were here in this desert hole for a reason. Not to exact revenge but to enforce justice (militarycity. com). Ã¢â¬ We can see here the deep desire of Tony to enforce justice. To seek for those who were responsible for the September 11 attack. Maybe his driving force is the thousands of lives that were lost from the attacks of the terrorists. This second letter was from Tom for his son: Ã¢â¬Å"I will be honest with you: Nothing in my life is greater than serving the Corps, God and country. Even so, I am here for another reason, too Ã¢â¬â a reason that personally motivates me. I am here so you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t one day have to come back and finish something we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take care of here and now. Ã¢â¬ Now we witnessed here a more personal purpose of the father fighting in the war. The third letter from Joshua was just a typical letter for his messages for his family. War letters denote some information regarding the social history of the United States (Blight, 2002). From the past decades up to the present moment, we can see that American citizens havenÃ¢â¬â¢t changed that much especially when it comes to patriotism. They are still all the ever protective and ever willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of future generations. We are all still united. The soldiers didnt fight alone; they have their family behind them making them stronger. This sense of unity was born before and is still living up to these days.I believe that this will continue up to the future. References: Blight, B. W. (2002). Beyond the Battlefield: Race, Memory the American Civil War. Univ of Massachusetts Press. Civil-war. net. (2009). Letters and Diaries. Retrieved on February 5, 2009, from http://www. civil-war. net/searchlinks. asp? searchlinks=Letters%20and%20Diaries Gilderlehrman. org. (2006). Battle Lines: Letters from AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s wars. Retrieved on February 4, 2009 from http://www. gilderlehrman. org/collection/battlelines/index_good. html Luise, F. C. , Riedesel, A. R. and Stone, W. L. (1867). Ã¢â¬Å"Letters and Journals Relating to the War of the American Revolution, and the Capture of the German Troops at SaratogaÃ¢â¬ . J. Munsell. Miltarycity. com. Letters. Retrieved on February 3, 2009 from http://www. militarycity. com/letters/1-729599. html Sauerburger, D. B. and Bayard, T. L. (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"I Seat Myself to Write you a Few Lines: Civil War and Homestead Letters from Thomas Lucas and Family, VOLUME 2Ã¢â¬ . Heritage Books Virginia. edu. Letters from: Harman to his Uncle Albert 1862. Retrieved on February 2, 2009, from http://etext. lib. virginia. edu/etcbin/civwarlett-browse? id=A0808
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Buy Me Love Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The depression was an era of extremes. A person was more than likely extremely poor, or in the lucky upper 1% that was extremely wealthy. The middle class was virtually not existent. All of these income groups, including those characterized in our three stories, wanted money because it supposedly brought happiness, but were actually struggling to cling to the intangible, unreachable feeling of love. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If money leads to love, Dexter Green has bought it a thousand times over. He wanted not association with the glittering things and glittering people [but] the glittering things themselvesÃ¢â¬ even if they come in the shape of an object, a person, a house, a manner, or as simple as a life (Fitzgerald Dreams 58). He is still the Ã¢â¬Å"proud, desirous little boyÃ¢â¬ of his youth (Dreams 64). This reincarnation of the Victorian gilded age reinstates the fact those things that look of worth might really be empty of value inside. This glittering hollowed thing for Dexter Green appears as Judy Jones. He wants her; he longs for her because he has everything else. Ã¢â¬Å"Often he reached out for the best without knowing why he wanted it;Ã¢â¬ just another trophy on his shelf, and seemingly the gift one might give a person who has everything (Dreams 58). He is desperate for the lifestyle, the glittering things, and belonging. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Judy, herself, is a symbol of wealth and to men, the ideal of love. She has proper breeding, incredible beauty, popularity, and above of all, lots of money. Though she is what men want to use as an example of love, she can not love. Rather, she is merely the idea of love and evidently the irony of love. She has no human capacity for it for she is only playing the game to prove that she can Ã¢â¬Å"[make] men conscious to the highest degree of her physical lovelinessÃ¢â¬ and make them fall in love with her in an instant (Dreams 65). Judy had fun with men and Ã¢â¬Å"was entertained only by the gratification of her desires and by the direct exercise of her own charmÃ¢â¬ (Dreams 61-2). She optimizes the evils of money and loses all that is attractive about her when tied down to marriage. She was a goddess with no morals in the eyes of men but was desperate for power, lust, and the thought of finding love. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Francis and Margot add an interesting tw... ...r have (i.e. money, love, her sister life, freedom from responsibilities). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Conclusion, all of these characters wanted something they could just not have. Most love, some courage, and some money, but the key here is that humans are driven by want. Money can buy a safari, or trip to Paris, or maybe a day on the links, but money can not buy happiness and money can not buy love. That is why all of these characters and all of us are desperate to feel wanted and loved because it is nothing you can buy; you have to earn it. Works Cited Page Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Ã¢â¬Å"Babylon RevisitedÃ¢â¬ . Fiction `00. Third edition James H. Pickering. New York: Macmillan, 1982. 210-30. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Ã¢â¬Å"Winter DreamsÃ¢â¬ . The American Tradition in Literature. Fourth edition. Sculley Bradley. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1974. 54-75. Hemmingway, Ernest. Ã¢â¬Å"The Short Happy Life of Francis MacomberÃ¢â¬ . The American Tradition in Literature. Fourth edition. Sculley Bradley. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1974. 1564-90. Zinn, Howard. A PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s History of the United States. New York: The New Press, 1997.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The present study Is an attempt to Investigate the translation of image In metaphors. In translation of metaphor, It Is necessary to start with Investigating the concept of metaphor. So the definition of metaphor and different kinds of metaphor are presented. Imagery is a key concept in metaphor that helps the reader to visualize and experience the author's writing. Different type of imagery also presented. Then translation of metaphors ,including cognitive approach, is considered. At last the translation of metaphor in Persian poetry is investigated.Introduction Translation plays an essential role in transferring message from one culture to another (Batavia,2008). Deference between SSL and TTL can sometimes pose challenges in the process of translation. One of these challenges is the translation of metaphor. Metaphors can become a translation problem, since transferring from one language and culture to another Is difficult. Ã¢â¬Å"Translation of metaphor will be always seen as probl ematic, no matter which approach to metaphor Is chosenÃ¢â¬ (Olivier, 1998:5).Literature review There are no Instructions for devising metaphors; there Is no manual for determining hat a metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"meansÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"saysÃ¢â¬ ; there is no test for metaphor that does not call for taste. A metaphor implies a kind and degree of artistic success; there are no unsuccessful metaphors There are tasteless metaphors, but these are turns that nevertheless have brought something off, even if it were not worth bringing off or could have been brought off better. (Davidson 29) According to Adage(1987:77) Ã¢â¬Å"metaphor presents a particularly searching tests of the translator's ability'.Furthers Olivier (1998:5) claims: Ã¢â¬Å"the translation of metaphor (Ã¢â¬ ¦ ) Is problematic no matter which approach to metaphor is chosenÃ¢â¬ . Degrees of translatability of metaphor are classified as follows: 1 . Metaphors are untranslatable: the advocates of this are Nadia, Avian and Darlene , and Adage. They believe that translation creates a different metaphor In the target language. 2. Metaphors are fully translatable: Sloppier, Reels and Mason claim that there is no problem in metaphor translation. Metaphor is translated as a new metaphor in target language. 3.Metaphors are translatable but pose a degree of interlinguas in equivalence: Van Den Broke, Arabian Olivarez, Tour and Newark have this view. 4. Conciliatory approach: Snell Horny said that he text type determine the range of rendering. Mandible(1 995) focus on the translator's reaction time to show differences in the translation of SCM ( similar mapping condition) and the DIM ( different mapping condition). The work of other theorists like Coves(2005), AH Hosannas(2007), Male(2008) and Rainmakers and Gaur(2010) are all product-oriented, show that translation products depend on SCM and DIM.The common basis between all of these studies Is that Ã¢â¬Å"the more the two languages conceptualize metaphors In a salar y way. The easier the task of translation will be. Also some research have been done In relevance to the effect of translation on metaphor by Schaeffer(2004) and Starriest(1993). Towboats (1993: has to be culture specific, thus presenting what amounts to often insurmountable problems for translation, which is by definition a transactional process. Schaeffer (2004): Discussed some implications for a cognitive theory of metaphor to translating metaphor without trying to draw a theory or a model. Dickens (2005): Simplified Model, Full Model, a reworking of Newark in terms of legalized and non- legalized metaphors, where Arabic-English translation of metaphor is reduced to exuberance and congruence. First, it is claimed that if two languages have radically different conceptual systems, then translation from one language to the other is impossible.Second, it is often claimed that if translation is impossible, then speakers of one language cannot understand the other language. Third, it i s often claimed that if the languages have different conceptual systems, then someone who speaks one language will be unable to learn the other language because he lacks the right conceptual system. Fourth, to confuse matters further, it is sometimes claimed that since people Ã¢â¬Å"canÃ¢â¬ learn idiotically different languages, those languages couldn't have different conceptual systems (Alaska, 1987: 311). What is metaphor? According to Newark metaphor is Ã¢â¬ any figurative expression: the transferred sense of a physical word, the personification of an abstraction, the application of a word or collocation to what is doesn't literally denote, to describe one thing in terms of another. Ã¢â¬ He also introduces the polygamous words and English phrasal verb as metaphor. Most people think that metaphor is used only in the literature and is a feature of language. They introduce metaphor as Ã¢â¬Å"matter of words instead of thought r actionÃ¢â¬ . But metaphors are used in every day conversation, in language, in thought and in action.George Alaska claims that Ã¢â¬Å"our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical nature. Ã¢â¬ Tall metaphor is described in two senses: in narrow sense, metaphor is figure of speech, one thing is described in terms of another. So metaphor is the combination of three components: tenor(object), vehicle(image), ground(sense) and is described as a resemblance between image and object. To explain more, we can say that the tenor and vehicle are connected by a verb that creates resemblance. The verb Ã¢â¬Å"to beÃ¢â¬ is often used to say the tenor is the vehicle.In broad sense metaphor is explained as what Newark define metaphor. In this broad sense metaphor is the relation between mind and cognition. From historical point of view, metaphor is a Greek word for transport and is defined as a transportation of concepts from its normal location to a new location. In the past, me taphor was figure of speech or form of figurative language that defined in terms of aesthetic and rhetorical points. It has been analyzed in term of components (image, object, sense) and types (dead, click, recentÃ¢â¬ ¦ ). But nowadays, metaphor is seen in perspective of conceptualization and idealization.So the cognitive conceptual stylistic approaches are chosen. Metaphor is similar to simile. In simile A is like B, but in metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"asÃ¢â¬ are not used. It means that in simile the comparison stated explicitly, while in metaphor and simile depends on this point of similarity between topic and image. This implicit similarity may be understood from context. Different type of metaphor Newark expresses six types of metaphor. 1 . Dead metaphor: Ã¢â¬Å"Dead metaphors are metaphors where one is hardly conscious of he image, frequently relate to universal terms of space and time, the main part of body and main human activity. In translation of dead metaphor the same image is transferred. Ã¢â¬Å"An example of a dead metaphor would be the Ã¢â¬Ëbody of an essay. Ã¢â¬Ë In this example, Ã¢â¬Ëbody' was initially an expression that drew on the metaphorical image of human anatomy applied to the subject matter in question. 2. Click metaphor: Ã¢â¬Å"Click metaphors are metaphors that have outlived their usefulness , that are used as substitute for clear thought , often emotively , but without corresponding to the facts of matter. Different image is made from SSL to TTL. Absence makes the heart grow fonder is a proverb click.Achilles heel is an allusion click. Acid test is an idiom click. Age before beauty is a catchphrase click. Alive and kicking is a doublet click. Avoid like the plague is a simile click 3. Stock or standard metaphor: Stock or standard metaphor is an Ã¢â¬Å"established metaphor which in an informal context is an efficient and conscious method of covering a physical or mental situation both referentially and pragmatically and which is not deadened by overuse. Ã¢â¬ In translation of standard metaphor the same image must be constructed n TTL. 4.Adapted metaphor: This type of metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"is actually a stock metaphor that has been adapted into a new context by its speaker or writer(fleetness' of a stock metaphor has been adapted or personalized in some way)Ã¢â¬ It can be translated by an equivalent adapted metaphor. 5. Recent metaphor: Ã¢â¬Å"This type of metaphor is produced through coining; they are often Ã¢â¬Ëanonymously' coinedÃ¢â¬ . Recent metaphors should be translated using continental analysis. 6. Original metaphor: Ã¢â¬Å"Original metaphors, are created or quoted by the SSL writer or speaker usually to make discourse more interesting and often used to highlight particular points. Translator has some choices: literal translation, reduction to sense or modification of the metaphor. Alaska and Johnson determine 3 type of metaphor under the title of conceptual metaphor: 1 . Orientation metaphor: spatial orientation (up-down, in-out) is the concern. For example: happy is up. Sad is down: I'm feeling up today. He's really low these days. 2. Ontological metaphor: an abstraction such as emotion and ideas is replaced by a concrete thing such as object, substance or entity. In this definition some words need some explanation.Entity is made when an abstraction is replaced by concrete physical object. For example, the mind is represented as a machine: my mind Just isn't operating today. When abstraction is represented as material, substance is made. For example: there was a lot of good sprinting in the race. Container is one ontological metaphor: when one concept is shown as something that has outside and inside, and holds something else. For instance: get the most out of life. 3. Structural metaphor: this is a conventional metaphor in which one basic domain of experience is transferred to another basic domain.This is the most complex metaphor. For example: argument is w ar, so we can say: your claims are indefensible. The conventional metaphor in this definition is a metaphor that is used in everyday example: if life is a Journey so we can say: it's time to get on with your life. George Alaska represents another type of metaphor that is called image metaphor. According to Alaska Ã¢â¬Å"image metaphor maps conventional mental image onto other conventional mental image by virtue of their internal structure. Ã¢â¬ Image metaphor is different from conceptual metaphor.Some metaphors are used in advertising slogans, so they are o common and convert to something that is used in every day conversations. For example consider the metaphor of Ã¢â¬Å"life is a Journey' Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a Journey, travel it Airlines) Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a Journey. Enjoy the Ride. Ã¢â¬Å"(Ionians) Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a Journey. Enjoy the ride with a GM reward card. Ã¢â¬Å"(General Motors) Ã¢â¬Å"Life's a JourneyÃ¢â¬âtravel lightÃ¢â¬ (Hugo Boss Perfume) Some metaphors used in the lyri cs. For example: Life's a Journey not a destination And I Just can't tell Just what tomorrow brings. From the album A Little South of Sanity) Poets use metaphor in poems. A common poem by the use of Ã¢â¬Å"life is a JourneyÃ¢â¬ is The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ from Robert Frost: Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth. Then took the other, as Just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same. And both that morning equally lay in leaves no step had trodden black.Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and IÃ¢â¬â I took the one less traveled by, and that has made all t he difference. Function of metaphor description of entities more comprehensively than in literal language (referential purpose). The second purpose is to delight, to please (pragmatic purpose). The third purpose is to show similarity between two comparable things that have one characteristic in common.Metaphors are also used to suggest the reader to think positively and beautifully to their life and world. Ã¢â¬Å"Love is a homeless guy searching or treasure in the middle of the rain and finding a bag of gold coins and slowly finding out they're all filled with chocolate and even though he's heart broken, he can't complain because he was hungry in the first place. Ã¢â¬Å"(Boo Burnham, Ã¢â¬Å"Love IsÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬Å"Time, you thiefÃ¢â¬ (Leigh Hunt, Ã¢â¬Å"RoundedÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬Å"Memory is a crazy woman that hoards colored rags and throws away food. Ã¢â¬Å"(Austin Maloney) Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a zoo in a Jungle. (Peter De Varies) Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a game played on us while we are playing other games. Ã¢â¬Å"(Even Sear) The application of metaphor Metaphor is an important device for communication. The work of Alaska and Johnson wows the application of metaphors in cognitive linguistics, as well as cognitive anthropology, computer science, and philosophy of language also in psychology. In psychology, the work of Alaska and Johnson shows interest in study of metaphor in cognitive and clinical psychology. In a cognitive perspective, metaphor is example of mental model as well as analogical reasoning and problem solving.Analogies and metaphors make sense f the word. Gentler (1983) argues that metaphors help to understanding, decision- making, and action. Duke (1994) shows the effect of metaphor in applied field of software ergonomics. Tahiti, Photos and Grasses (1999) represent the effect of metaphor in communication process. Clinical psychology, concentrate on the role of metaphor in communication processes in psychotherapy. Imagery Imagery is not only the representation of v isual image in our mind. Imagery is more complex. And can be categorize in five types, each relevant to one of our sense.Newark claims that language refers to visual image and metaphor is the language reference to other senses. Hearing and touch are more powerful than taste and smell. Different type of imagery Visual images are mental pictures that are constructed in your mind. It means that in order to compare two things use picture rather than word. For example: the Tavern was worn down with age, the wooden bar chipping away, the floors looking black from the dirt, and the ceiling carrying dark brown stains from water damage. Auditory images relate to sound. It is a form of mental imagery that is used to organize sound.This image divided to two auditory modalities; verbal imagery and vividness and detail of auditory imagery depend on the background and condition of brain. As an example of auditory imagery we can express from an ode: Ã¢â¬Å"Or sinking as the light wind lives or die s; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft The redbreast whistles from a garden-croft, And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. Ã¢â¬ Kinesthesia images: where the reader can imagine the movements and action of a person or an object.For example: his body moved fluidly throughout the obstacle course, dodging every object thrown at him with agility and grace while speeding down the path. Olfactory images which refers to smell of the odors and scents. Example: the perfume she sprayed reminded her of the sweet and calming scent of mangos and vanilla, a wave of relaxation soon overcoming her. Gustatory images refer to the words in your mind that make you think of taste. For example: the artificial cherry taste of the cough medicine was overly flowery and sweet. Tactile image: allow reader to imagine a feel or texture of certain things.As an example: the blanket was as soft as cotton and as smooth as silk. Organic imagery which is the imagination of feeling what the character feels, such as thirst, hunger. As an example: he was completely drained of energy, his knees buckling from carrying his own weight and eyes drooping from exhaustion. Imagery used in three senses in literary eroticism: in the broad sense, the image need not be mental pictures. In narrow sense, imagery is description of visual objects and senses. The third, imagery means figurative language. Function of imagery Imagery is used in poetry and literature.In poetry is as a backbone of poem because imagery used in poem to evoke a response in reader. Imagery has different connotation and meaning, but for the poet they convey a complete human experience in every few words. Imagery in literature is a collection of techniques that appeal to the senses. There are two main types of language used in literature: secretive and figurative: in the descriptive language we can refer to the senses directly, while in the figurative language we should use some description and invoke other meaning. To create imagery in literature, both types of languages are used.The descriptive language use imagery directly to create a vivid, realistic description of the sense. This describes the appearance and setting, the different senses. Comprehension of metaphor There are some theories related to metaphor comprehension: 1 . Interaction theory: (proposed by Richards (1965), black (1962)), in this view the interaction between tenor and vehicle creates metaphor. . Mapping theory: (proposed by Alaska(1987)), this view use the terms of Ã¢â¬Å"source domainÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"target domainÃ¢â¬ to show the directionality of relation between these domains that called mapping. 3.Blending theory: in metaphor there are two psychological spaces: source psychological space and target psychological space. These two spaces make a new space. The sense of metaphor called generic space. If the source, target and generic spaces create a new space metaphor is mad e. Metaphor translation According to Newark, Ã¢â¬Å"whilst the central problem of translation is the overall choice translation of metaphorÃ¢â¬ . Unremarkable; 104) In order to interpretation of metaphors, translator can choose among some possibilities: 1 . Exact equivalence of original metaphor, 2. A metaphorical phrase which express a similar sense, 3.Untranslatable metaphor replaced with approximate literal paraphrase Problems relating to metaphor translation Adage points out Ã¢â¬Å"since a metaphor in SSL is, by definition, a semantic novelty, it can clearly have no existing equivalence in the TTLÃ¢â¬ . Another problem relates to what Limier claims Ã¢â¬ most words in a language have absorbed cultural aspects and historical experiencesÃ¢â¬ . Metaphors often are culture-bound, and the best way for translation is direct translation. Metaphor as an issue in translation study Prescription versus description These two polarities (prescription and description) are one aspect o f translation problem.The advocates of prescriptive approach are Nadia, Van den Broke, Newark and the advocates of descriptive approach are Tour, Snell Horny, Baker. (Fernando et al 2003:61) These approaches seeking SST faithfulness have been increasingly disregarded in favor of target oriented studies, which had an impact on the concept of equivalence. Transgenic equivalence thus doesn't pursue Ã¢â¬Ëperfect' but rather Ã¢â¬Ëacceptable' rendering (Arabian-Lavaliere's) Classical versus conceptual perspective Another classification in study of metaphor is the polarities of classical and conceptual approach.While the principal of these two approaches are different, in recent decades some attempts have been done to combine these two approaches. In the classical view, metaphor was a rhetorical figure or a device to add interest to the text. At the same time, metaphor has been seen as something interesting, peripheral, as an object in realm of poetic rather than empirical analysis. Tr aditional understanding of metaphor as a figure of speech has been recently replaced with a more complex conceptual, cognitive approach(Schaeffer 2004).The publication of Ã¢â¬ËMetaphors we live by (1980) by Alaska and Johnson change the whole world of study. In recent years the new conceptual view of metaphor is the most important view. Alaska and Johnson argues that marathons are nothing less than demonstration of the whole system of experience and thought of human society- in other words, Ã¢â¬Å"metaphor permeate and pervade both languages and thoughtÃ¢â¬ ( Fernando 2003:65). So metaphor is an expression of conceptual mapping, while this view is the same of lassie view but it is said that mapping is a surface demonstration of the relation in a deeper level.Descriptive: _cultural Horny(1988-95), Towboats(1993) _(UN)translatability and cultural overlap(Adage(1976-1987) _(UN)translatability and structure of cultural information(Van Den Broke(1981) Prescriptive keeping the same me taphorical image _changing it into a simile _substituting by equivalent metaphor in the TTL _keeping the same metaphorical image and adding explanation _paraphrase Horny(1988-1995) claims that some abstract rule cannot describe metaphor, and the unction of metaphor within a context should be considered.Newark never said anything about the choice from among the procedure. Alaska and Johnson argue that Ã¢â¬Å"the metaphors that are most alive and most deeply entrenched, efficient and powerful are those that are so automatic as to be unconscious and effortlessÃ¢â¬ . In recent work related to metaphor translation, the cognitive approach is adopted by different theorists and statisticians. They look at the metaphor not as stereotyped types, but as a process of mapping between two different domains that called the source domain and target domain.For example in the statement Ã¢â¬Å"this room is an ovenÃ¢â¬ the target domain is our understanding of the concept of heat for it is the con cept we wish to express through the metaphor. The source domain is conceptualized as Ã¢â¬Å"an enclosed heated compartment_ an extremely hot place, which is vehicle for the metaphorical transfer. The whole metaphor can be expressed as Ã¢â¬Å"heat is an enclosed heated compartment. Ã¢â¬ The selection of translation method In order to preserve the image of metaphor 1 . Literal translation: the image in the target text is the same image transferred from source text. 2.The image in source text is replaced by another form in 3. Image is transferred but annotation is added. This is used when target text. There are cultural differences. So by the use of annotation the reader with different cultural background can understand metaphor. Mapping In this view instead of terms tenor and vehicle, two other terms are used that called source domain and target domain. In this theory, metaphor is the projection from source domain to target domain. Mapping between these two domains helps the reader to understand conceptual metaphor and the translator to translate effectively. Translation of metaphor: 1 .There isn't the same metaphor In the target text 2. The metaphor existing in target text, but the mapping doesn't follow directly. There are three possible reasons for this. -in target text another meaning is created. -the mapping doesn't occur in target language -the mapping has restriction. Now the choice of translator depends on the existence of conceptual metaphor. If the conceptual metaphor doesn't exist in target language, the translator has two choices: whether translate literally and add an explanation or without any consideration to mage-schematic mapping, translate the meaning of metaphor.But if conceptual metaphors are the same in source or target language the translation is as follow: if mapped instance is the same, an exact translation is used. And if different mapping is created in target language there are two choices: Use an explanatory simile or an instance wi th the same meaning is replaced. Finally if there isn't image-schema mapping in two languages, an explanatory simile is used or explanation added to direct translation. Cognitive approach Mandible In this model the cultural beliefs and values between two culturally different faculty is added when cultural differences are existed.If cultural background of two language readers is the same so we can say mapping conditions in the SSL and TTL are similar, and cultural gap create different mapping condition. These two conditions are basic terms used in mandible's Cognitive Translation Hypothesis. Mandible(1995) argues that translation of metaphor with a similar mapping condition(SCM) is simple and less time-consuming. When translator face with different mapping condition(DIM), has some choices: rendering the metaphor to simile, paraphrasing, footnote, explanation and omission.Mandible intended to show the translator needs to make a shift between mapping condition of source and target lang uage. Coves Coves (2005) expresses the regularities of the ways conceptual metaphors are expressed linguistically in different languages. In this model the translation of sixteen English metaphorical linguistic expression of Ã¢â¬Å"Time is money' metaphor as described in Alaska and Johnson is examined. Coves characterized each example by one or several patterns to show whether the form, literal meaning, figurative meaning, conceptual metaphor are similar or different.He compares the linguistic expression of conceptual metaphor in two languages of English and Hungarian. He explain that different kind of possibilities or patterns are as follows: a. Metaphors of similar mapping conditions and similar lexical implementations. B. Metaphors of similar mapping conditions but different lexical implementations. C. Metaphors of different mapping conditions but similar lexical implementations. D. Metaphors of different mapping conditions and different lexical implementations.AH Hosanna In the criticism of Mandible approach, AH Hosanna(2007) added one scheme, and present three schemas for metaphor translation. . Metaphors with similar mapping condition ( these are cultural universal SSL metaphors) 2. Metaphors have similar mapping condition but lexically implemented in different way( in this category, the ethical system in the TTL and SSL make metaphors different in lexical aspect) 3. Metaphors have different mapping condition( include culture-bound SSL metaphors) AH Hosanna also criticizes the Naiad's equivalents.Nadia believes that the translation should create the same response in TTL reader as in the SSL reader. AH Hosanna claims that this equivalence is impossible practically and can be applied only under two notations: the translator knows the experience and world view of TTL readership or translator knows the best way to adapt text with experience of TTL readership. Alaska and Johnson(1980) believe that metaphor is not only a linguistic things, but also is perceive d in thought and action.So in the cognitive view of metaphor, the psychological, coloratura and linguistic aspects are considered. Another model for metaphor translation is the model of Schaeffer(2004) and Strainers(1993). Their approach is descriptive. The political texts in English and German are compared. Schaffer express five type of metaphor translation. . Manifestation having been accounted for at the micro-level 2. Structural components of the base conceptual schema in the SST are replaced by expression that make entailment's explicit. 3. Metaphor is more elaborate in TTT. . SST and TTT employ different metaphorical expressions which can be combined under a more abstract conceptual metaphor. 5. The expression in teeth reflects a They criticize the models of Mandible(1995), Coves(2005), and AH Hosannas(2007). They noted that translation of metaphors in this model is different from mapping condition and lexical implementation. In this model there are six logically possible sche mes on a cog native basis. Some English metaphors and their Persian subtitles in 3 American movies (Face off, Con Air, Speed) are considered.These six schemes are as follows: 1. Metaphors of similar mapping conditions and similar lexical implementation For example: I'd like to stand on my own two feet Definition: to become independent Translation in Persian: The word for word translation: I'd like to stand on my own feet 2. Metaphors of similar mapping conditions but different lexical implementations. For example: she is real 10. Definition: talented and knowledgeable Translation in Persian: The word for word translation: she is 20. 3.Metaphors of different mapping conditions but similar lexical implementations. For example: he calls his teacher by his first name. Definition: to have a friendly relation with Translation in Persian: ss Is-a The word for word translation: he calls his teacher by his first name. 4. Metaphors of different mapping conditions and different lexical impleme ntations. For example: somebody gets the gasohol out here Definition: annoying person Translation in Persian: The word for word translation: somebody get the stick out of here. The SSL metaphor doesn't exist in TTL For example: he is a late bloomer There isn't any equivalent in TTL So the TTL speaker use literal language to explain 6. The TTL metaphor doesn't exist in the SSL (the SSL speaker use literal language, TTL speaker conceptualize an identity in metaphorical structure. Metaphor in Persian poems In Persian poetry, especially the lyric (odes), feeling, thought and situation or even the persons are described by metaphor. There are two reasons for this; first of all are the poetic aspects of metaphor; the other reason is that it is politically incorrect to express feeling explicitly.Different aspects of love and characteristics of beloved, nature, wine are described by metaphor. Hafiz employs metaphor to mask his real meaning. He uses code words which do not represent their ord inary meaning. Metaphoric wine Wine is used in Persian poetry either in actual sense or in metaphoric sense. Hafiz sometimes use wine to refer to beloved, friend, teacher or master or God. Attar also refers to wine metaphorically as follow: 15 Metaphor in describing beloved: The beloved often is image of an idealized abstract entity rather than a physical
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The Impact of Mass Media Influence on Politics What impact do the mass media have on modern government and politics? The mass media is now a global phenomenon and has revolutionized the way individuals communicate with each other and receive information. In this essay I will examine the three forms of mass media - newspaper, radio and television - and the way they have evolved. I will explain the three main theories relating to the impact of mass media on the public. I will then discuss how media has altered the emphasis of government at election time and on a day-to-day basis. The term mass media embraces all kinds of information sources, such as books, pamphlets, mail circulars and films. The three principle sources ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hitler was the first politician to exploit the potential of radio. In the United States and Great Britain, Roosevelt and Baldwin introduced the medium in a more gentle fashion. Radio was the much-used medium during the war with things such as Churchills speeches. Television begun to make an appearance during the war, used to show films reinforcing patr iotism and resistance. After the war, television took over as the main medium. NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s Checkers speech in 1952 is seen as the beginning of the television revolution. Ironically, television was NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall in 1960 in the first televised debate; it showed that appearance on television is as important as the message. There are three broad arguments concerning the effects of the mass media on the public and therefore government and politics - opinion forming, opinion reinforcing, and no effects. The opinion forming argument believes that the media shape opinions held by the viewer, since the media chooses the agenda, it also shapes what issues are thought about. This view depicts the viewer as having no or few opinions before media exposure and then accepts the arguments and opinions put forward. 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