Monday, September 30, 2019

Kaiser Permanente Risk Management Executive Summary Essay

Organization Description Kaiser Permanente (KP) is the nation’s largest integrated health care delivery system. KP serves nine states and over nine million members, with an annual operating revenue in 2013 of 53.1 billion. KP is a leader in quality improvement efforts in the health care industry through participation in studies performed by the National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA), The Joint Commission (TJC) accreditations, and the implementation of a state of the art electronic health records system, which focuses on integration and quality of care standardization. The focus of this summary is on KP hospitals in the northern California region and will include topics such as the purpose of risk and quality management, risk identification and management, current risks, quality outcomes, organizational goals, and the relationship between risk and quality management. Risk and Quality Management Purpose General The purpose of risk management in health care is simply the process of protecting the assets and minimizing financial losses to the organization (Singh & Habeeb Ghatala, 2012). A comprehensive risk management strategy within a health care organization will include focus on continuous quality improvement (CQI). The purpose of CQI in health care, according to Sollecito and Johnson (2013), is to offer a â€Å"structured organizational process for involving personnel in planning and executing a continuous flow of improvements to provide quality health care that meets or exceeds expectations† (p. 4). Through linking the processes of risk management and quality improvement the success of both processes is more likely to be realized. Kaiser Permanente The key concepts for risk and quality management at KP are commitment to quality, patient safety, privacy protection, and fraud prevention. KP risk management and quality management programs are central to their mission, values, and culture. Methods currently utilized to support these concepts  within KP are consumer surveys, the use of an integrated EHR with evidence based guidelines and clinical decision-making functionality, stringent patient privacy regulations and processes, continuous clinical and administrative staff training programs, and participation in studies focused on standardizing national quality measures (Kaiser Permanente, 2012). Risk Identification and Management Steps While KP is a leader in health care risk and quality management there are specific steps this consultant is recommending on a continual basis that will improve risk identification and management within the organization. 1. Identify and analyze loss and exposure While there are many methods utilized within the health care industry in the identification and analysis of loss and exposure, the recommended methods for KP are as follows: a) Incident-reporting analysis b) Improvement on the current performance management process for employees to bring focus on risk mitigation and quality improvement. c) Quantitative analysis of patient complaints and satisfaction surveys. d) Review of the organizations past professional liability and workers compensation reports. e) Review of surveys completed by TJC and NCQA on other hospitals in order to identify risk areas that KP should focus on. (McCaffrey & Hagg-Rickert, 2009) 2. Research and propose alternative risk techniques To mitigate risks that are unavoidable at KP, a combination of alternative risk techniques will help reduce situations that might negatively affect the organization. A financial analysis and risk analysis should be performed in order to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing the exposure avoidance technique. This is not a likely option as the financial impact of eliminating services may out weigh the risks involved with continuing them. A loss reduction approach is more likely to be the technique chosen for this organization. The core prevention activities that must be present in the loss reduction technique are as follows: a.) Ongoing staff education b.) Current policy and procedure review and revision c.) Updates to the organizations current EHR system to ensure the data present in the clinical decision-making and evidence-based clinical guidelines technology is the most current data available. According to Chen, et al (2009), â€Å"a growing body of literature confirms the value of electronic health records (EHRs) in improving patient safety, improving coordination of care, enhancing documentation, and facilitating clinical decision making and adherence to evidence-based clinical guidelines† (p. 323). 3. Risk management technique selection This two-part process of risk management technique selection is accomplished through forecasting and application of an ongoing measurement process, which will allow KP to analyze the risk management technique with regard to outcome and cost effectiveness. Included in the measurement process both risk treatment and risk-financing techniques should be measured (McCaffrey & Hagg-Rickert 2009). 4. Implement the selected techniques Implementation of the chosen risk management techniques may include decisions on insurance coverage and policy changes, overall department workflow changes to ensure compliance with state and federally mandated regulations and guidelines, and elimination of processes that impede or hinder patient safety. 5. Monitor and improve upon the implemented risk management program In order to continue improving upon the newly implemented risk management program a comprehensive monitoring strategy should be employed. In fact, McCaffrey and Hagg-Rickert, (2009) stated, â€Å"a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the risk management program ensures that the impact of additional opportunities to improve the risk management function are fully explored† (p. 21). a.) Prepare an annual risk management report b.) Compare the new annual report against prior years risk management data (McCaffrey & Hagg-Rickert 2009) Current Risks Three risks that KP should take special care to avoid are rejection of newly implemented risk management and CQI procedures by employees, statute and regulatory changes, and health care associated infections (HAIs). 1. Rejection Change implementation is never an easy task and without special care taken the rate of rejection to change by clinical and administrative employees is high. In order to achieve successful CQI changes the following guidelines and recommendations are presented. a.) Minimize employee rejection through easily implemented and followed CQI procedures. b.) Engage employees in planning to increase acceptance. c.) Ensure lateral linkages within the organization across specialty departments to improve communication (Sollecito and Johnson, 2013). 2. Statute and regulatory changes With the ever-changing landscape in state and federal statutes and regulations surrounding the health care industry, special attention to this risk area must be taken. In fact, Cohen (2009) stated that â€Å"health care is one of the most heavily regulated of all sectors of commerce† (p. 328). Failure to comply with state and federal statutes and regulations can bring about negative financial affects at KP, including but not limited to; fines, loss of accreditation and credentialing, and an increase in malpractice lawsuits, not to mention a decrease in quality of care. a.) Risk management and quality improvement officers stay current and involved in statute and regulation changes. b.) Mandate educational goals for risk management and quality management officers with regard to state and federal regulations. c.) Implement a monthly employee newsletter within which the risk management officer and quality improvement officer outline regulation changes. Include processes that emplo yees should expect to see implemented to maintain compliance. Include a signature page with those editions that include changes to policy and ensure all employees sign and return to the human resources department. d.) Ongoing training for clinical and administrative employees with regards to statute and regulation. The risk management and quality improvement officers will be responsible to work with the organizations education department to implement new workshops as needed. e.) Include these responsibilities in the performance monitoring strategy for the risk management and quality improvement officers. 3. HAIs Health care associated infections are a serious risk in hospitals, as noted by Sydnor and Perl (2011), in their statement â€Å"HAIs are the most common complication seen in hospitalized patients† (para. 20). Improper prevention can lead to increased costs, lengthier hospital stays, and even patient death. Additionally, a Condition of Participation (CoP) (42 CFR 482.42) by CMS mandates hospital infection control programs to adhere to specific requirements. Recommendations are as follows. a.) Implement a house-keeping checklist to ensure proper sanitization of patient rooms. b.) Implement a sanitization checklist for clinical staff that will enforce hand washing before and after patient contact. c.) Develop a committee to review and revise the KP infection prevention and control program. Revisions should focus on compliance with TJC and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) regulations. Quality Outcomes Internal and external Three internal and external factors that influence quality outcomes are organization management of interpersonal relationships between physicians and patients, patient compliance, and continuity of care. Without proper management of interpersonal relationships between physicians and patients, the organization will face degradation in trust and openness. Patients should be involved in all treatment decisions, through proper education on their diagnosis and treatment options. This will bring about patient engagement in this decision making process. While KP cannot force their patients to comply with treatment guidelines, the external influence of patient compliance is crucial to quality outcomes. Programs focused on thorough training and education of patients and family members will improve the rate of compliance, thus improving the probability of positive quality outcomes for patients. Lack of patient compliance will hinder the treatment process and lower the level of quality outcomes standards at KP. Continuity of care is another internal influence that can affect quality outcomes. Regular follow up with patients will also increase patient compliance. Without improving continuity of care, the KP organization will see a reduction in positive quality outcomes and an increased in undesired outcomes (DeHarnais, 2013, chp 5). Goals Short-Term 1. Design new regulatory and statute training programs for all clinical and administrative employees. 2. Review and revise the KP infection prevention and control program 3. Revise the performance management system to include CQI measurements and risk management procedures as performance metrics. Long-Term 1. Increase adherence to state and federal regulations and statutes throughout the KP organization. 2. Reduce HAIs by 10% throughout KP hospitals in the northern California region. 3. Improve CQI measurement and risk management policy adherence throughout the northern California region by 20% among clinical employees. Risk and Quality Management Recommendations Risk management policies 1. Quarterly peer review The Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) of 1986 â€Å"encourages hospitals, state licensing boards, and professional societies to identify and discipline physicians, dentists, and other health care providers who, after adequate, nondiscriminatory peer review, were found to have engaged in negligent or unprofessional conduct† (Cohen, 2013 p. 333). Through ongoing screening of new and current clinicians, KP will take responsibility for offering their patients that highest quality of care and reducing the risk of employing negligent clinical employees. 2. Zero tolerance adherence policy for all employees with regard to infection control procedures Part of the CMS CoP (42 CFR 482.42) regulation is the â€Å"designation of an infection control officer and development of relevant policies that address the identification and control of infections and communicable diseases. Without full compliance with all CoPs, KP could face the loss of their Medicare provider agreement. 3. Vulnerability analysis chart and emergency plan policy. According to Rawson and Hammond (2009) â€Å"by evaluating vulnerabilities and taking appropriate preventive action, loss can be minimized in an emergency†Ã‚  (p. 506). Health care facilities should include prevention measures in their emergency plans that include the risk of terrorist attacks. While terrorist attack risk cannot be completely mitigated, it is the responsibility of the health care facility to be prepared for such an emergency. Obtain additional information on including risk of terrorist attacks from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Quality management policies 1. Adherence to evidence-based clinical guidelines While it has been shown that â€Å"clinicians have customarily enjoyed a great deal of autonomy in their practices† (Argawal, 2010, para 3), it is imperative that clinicians follow evidence-based clinical guidelines. If exceptions should be made the details of, the patient diagnosis and variations should be presented for peer review prior to altering treatment plans. 2. Minimum score of 88% on customer satisfaction surveys Clinicians must maintain an average score of no less than 88% on customer satisfaction surveys quarterly. In today’s health care market, measurements of quality include consumer satisfaction. In fact, Bernard and Savitz (2009) state that in todays â€Å"competitive health care environment, consumers want and expect better health care services and hospital systems are concerned about maintaining their overall image† (p. 185). Relationship between risk and quality management In the past, risk management officers and quality improvement managers worked autonomously from one another, in fact they most often reported to different superiors. However, today healthcare organizations are realizing that in order to reach quality of care goals and maintain effective risk management programs these disciplines must work together closely. An example of how risk management efforts and quality improvement efforts complement one another is seen in the reduction of medical errors. The risk management plan must consider ways to reduce medical errors, while the quality improvement plan will offer solid steps toward minimizing medical errors (Sollecito and Johnson, 2013). Conclusion This summary focused on topics such as the purpose of risk and quality management, risk identification and management, current risks, quality outcomes, organizational goals, and the relationship between risk and quality management. While KP is the nation’s largest integrated health care delivery systems and leader in CQI standardization, there is always room for improvements. This consultant understands the importance of improvement at KP, thus humbly presents this summary and recommendations to the board of directors. References Agarwal, R. (2010, May). A Guideline for Quality Accreditation in Hospitals. Quality Digest, (), 1-4. Retrieved from Chen, C., Garrido, T., Chock, D., Okawa, G., & Liang, L. (2009). The Kaiser Permanente electronic health record: Transforming and streamlining modalities of care. Health Affairs, 28(2), 323-33. Retrieved from Cohen, M. (2009). Statutes, Standards, and Regulations (chp 10) in McCaffrey, J. J., & Hagg-Rickert, S. (2009) Risk Management Handbook (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. DesHarnais, S. I. (2013). The outcome model of quality (chp 5) in Sollecito, W. A. and Johnson, J. K. (2013). McLaughlin and Kaluzny’s Continuous Quality Improvement In Health Care (4th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Emily R. M. Sydnor, Trish M. Perl (2011, January). Clin Microbiol, 24(1): 141–173. Retrieved from http: // Kaiser Permanente. (2014). Kaiser Permanente, Retrieved from McCaffrey, J. J., & Hagg-Rickert, S. (2009, Chp 1) Developing of a Risk Management Program in Risk Management Handbook (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Rawson, M. L. and Hammond, H. Y,. (2009) Emergency Management in McCaffrey, J. J., & Hagg-Rickert, S. (2009, Chp 7) Developing of a Risk Management Program in Risk Management Handbook (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Singh, B., & Habeeb Ghatala, M. (2012, August). Risk Management in Hospitals. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 3(4). Sollecito, W. A. and Johnson, J. K. (2013). McLaughlin and Kaluzny’s Continuous Quality Improvement In Health Care (4th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Daddy-Long-Legs analysis Essay

The text under analysis is a passage from an epistolary novel written by a well-known American writer Jean Webster. She was active politically and socially, and often included issues of interest in her books. This book is written in belles-lettres style. The story has a narrative presentation and the subject of the extract is drown from life. The author places herself in the position of the main character. The main character is a Judy. The novel episode by episode describes the life of Judy in the College. It’s unfolded through the first person narration (an â€Å"I-story†), as it’s written in the form of letters of Judy to Mr. Daddy-Long-Legs, a rich man whom she has never seen. This extract is the first letter of Judy to Mr. Smith. The style of the letter is informal.It is written in emotional tone,what corresponds definite difficulties for translation. The language of this letter is full of syntactical means. There is example of gradation : ‘It seems strange for me to be writing letters to somebody you don’t know. It seems strange to be writing letters at all’.We can reproduce it with the help of such grammatical transformation as transposition : . The translator can use the following grammatical transformation ,for example, replacement:1)when we change Active Voice on Passive Voice, e.g. Before leaving yesterday morning, Mrs. Lippett and I had a very serious talk.- ПÐ µÃ'€Ð µÃ ´ Ð ¼Ã ¾Ã ¸Ã ¼ Ð ¾Ã'‚Ã'ŠÐ µÃ ·Ã ´Ã ¾Ã ¼, Ð ²Ã'‡Ð µÃ'€Ð ° Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ¼, Ã'Æ' Ð ½Ã °Ã'  Ã'  Ð ¼Ã ¸Ã' Ã' Ã ¸Ã'  ЛÐ ¸Ã ¿Ã ¿Ã µÃ'‚Ã'‚ Ã' Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã' Ã »Ã' Ã'  Ã' Ã µÃ'€Ã'Å'Ð µÃ ·Ã ½Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ã'€Ð °Ã ·Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ¾Ã'€.2) When we change a noun on the verb, e.g. I will write you a description- Ð ¯ Ð ¾Ã ¿Ã ¸Ã'ˆÃ'Æ' Ð’Ð °Ã ¼ Ð µÃ ³Ã ¾. By translati on the embedding can be used, e.g. I will write you a description later when I’m feeling less confused- Ð ¯ Ð ¾Ã ¿Ã ¸Ã'ˆÃ'Æ' Ð’Ð °Ã ¼ Ð µÃ ³Ã ¾ Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ¶Ã µ, Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ´Ã ° Ð ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ¹Ã ´Ã µÃ'‚ Ð ¼Ã ¾Ã µ Ð ¿Ã µÃ'€Ð ²Ã ¾Ã µ Ð ·Ã °Ã ¼Ã µÃ'ˆÐ °Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾. There is an example of conversion, when we use the replacement, e.g. †¦having somebody take an interest in me after all these years, makes me feel as though I had found a sort of family.- Ð ¢Ã ¾Ã'‚ Ã'„Ð °Ã ºÃ'‚, Ã'‡Ã'‚Ð ¾ Ð ºÃ'‚Ð ¾Ã¢â‚¬â€˜Ã'‚Ð ¾ Ð ·Ã °Ã ¸Ã ½Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€Ð µÃ' Ã ¾Ã ²Ã °Ã »Ã' Ã'  Ð ¼Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã' Ã »Ã µ Ð ²Ã' Ã µÃ'… Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã'… Ð »Ã µÃ'‚, Ð ²Ã'‹Ð ·Ã'‹Ð ²Ã °Ã µÃ'‚ Ð ²Ã ¾ Ð ¼Ã ½Ã µ Ã'‚Ð °Ã ºÃ ¾Ã µ Ã'‡Ã'Æ'Ð ²Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾, Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã'  Ð ¾Ã ±Ã'€Ð µÃ »Ã ° Ð ½Ã µÃ'‡Ã'‚Ð ¾ Ð ²Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ´Ã µ Ã' Ã µÃ ¼Ã'Å'Ð ¸. There is an idiom, which one can translate with the help of phraseological equivalent, e.g. a great deal-Ð ¼Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¾. The author uses such lexical expressive means as antonomasia.It is presented here by the so-called â€Å"speaking names†, which intrduce informality into the  letter and difficulties for translation,e.g. Daddy-Long-Legs -ДÐ »Ã ¸Ã ½Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¸Ã ¹ ПÐ °Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã'‡Ð ºÃ ° (daddy — Ã'€Ð °Ã ·Ã ³. Ð ¿Ã °Ã ¿Ã °, Ð ¿Ã °Ã ¿Ã ¾Ã'‡Ð ºÃ °; Ã'‚Ð ¶. daddy-long-legs — Ð ´Ã ¾Ã »Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¶Ã ºÃ ° /Ð ½Ã °Ã' Ã µÃ ºÃ ¾Ã ¼Ã ¾Ã µ/; Ð ¿Ã °Ã'Æ'Ð º-Ã' Ã µÃ ½Ã ¾Ã ºÃ ¾Ã' Ã µÃ'†) ; Dear Kind-Trustee-Who-Sends-Orphans-to-College- 1)Ã'Æ'Ð ²Ã °Ã ¶Ã °Ã µÃ ¼Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ð ´Ã ¾Ã ±Ã'€Ã'‹Ð ¹-Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã µÃ'‡Ð ¸Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'-Ð ºÃ ¾Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'€Ã'‹Ð ¹-Ð ¾Ã'‚Ð ¿Ã'€Ð °Ã ²Ã »Ã' Ã µÃ'‚-Ã' Ã ¸Ã'€Ð ¾Ã'‚-Ð ²-Ð ºÃ ¾Ã »Ã »Ã µÃ ´Ã ¶;2) ДÐ ¾Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ¹ ДÐ ¾Ã ±Ã'€Ã'‹Ð ¹Ã¢â‚¬â€˜ÃÅ¸Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã µÃ'‡Ð ¸Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'‑ПÐ ¾Ã' Ã'‹Ð »Ã °Ã'ŽÃ'‰Ð ¸Ã ¹Ã¢â‚¬â€˜Ã ¡Ã ¸Ã'€Ð ¾Ã'‚‑Ð ²Ã¢â‚¬â€˜ÃÅ¡Ã ¾Ã »Ã »Ã µÃ ´Ã ¶; Mr. Girl-Hater –1)ÐÅ"Ð ¸Ã' Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€ Ðâ€"Ð µÃ ½Ã ¾Ã ½Ã µÃ ½Ã °Ã ²Ã ¸Ã' Ã ½Ã ¸Ã º, 2) ÐÅ"Ð ¸Ã' Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€ ПÃ'€Ð ¾Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¸Ã º ДÐ µÃ ²Ã'Æ'Ã'ˆÐ µÃ º; Mr. Rich-Man- 1)ÐÅ"Ð ¸Ã' Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€ БÐ ¾Ã ³Ã °Ã'‡, 2) ÐÅ"Ð ¸Ã' Ã'‚Ð µÃ'€ Ð ¢Ã ¾Ã »Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã' Ã'Æ'Ð ¼. There are also some prope names, which should be transcribed , e.g. Mrs. Lippett- Ð ¼Ã ¸Ã' Ã' Ã ¸Ã'  ЛÐ ¸Ã ¿Ã ¿Ã µÃ'‚Ã'‚, John Smith- ДÐ ¶Ã ¾Ã ½ Ð ¡Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã'‚, John Grier Home- Ð ¿Ã'€Ð ¸Ã'ŽÃ'‚ ДÐ ¶Ã ¾Ã ½Ã ° ГÃ'€Ð ¸Ã'€Ð °(ГÃ'€Ð °Ã ¹Ã µÃ'€Ð °). The lexical expressive means as similie can be find,e.g. I feel like a fire horse all of the time- Ã'  Ð ²Ã' Ã µ Ð ²Ã'€Ð µÃ ¼Ã'  Ã'‡Ã'Æ'Ð ²Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã'Æ'Ã'Ž Ã' Ã µÃ ±Ã' , Ã' Ã »Ã ¾Ã ²Ã ½Ã ¾ Ð »Ã ¾Ã'ˆÐ °Ã ´Ã'Å' Ð ¿Ã µÃ'€Ð µÃ ´ Ã' Ã'‚Ð °Ã'€Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã ¼/ Ã'  Ã'‡Ã'Æ'Ð ²Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã'Æ'Ã'Ž Ã' Ã µÃ ±Ã'  Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã ¶Ã °Ã'€Ð ½Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ð »Ã ¾Ã'ˆÐ °Ã ´Ã'Å'Ã'Ž Ð ²Ã' Ã µ Ð ²Ã'€Ð µÃ ¼Ã' . The author achieves the humorous effect because of so-called Speaking Names and funny tone of the whole letter, for example ,a rethorical question: â€Å"Why couldn’t you have picked out a name with a little personality? »-  « ПÐ ¾Ã'‡Ð µÃ ¼Ã'Æ' Ð ²Ã'‹ Ð ½Ã µ Ð ²Ã'‹Ð ±Ã'€Ð °Ã »Ã ¸ Ð ¸Ã ¼Ã'  Ã'  Ã'…Ð ¾Ã'‚Ã'Å' Ã'‡Ã'Æ'Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'‡Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ¹ Ð ¸Ã ½Ã ´Ã ¸Ã ²Ã ¸Ã ´Ã'Æ'Ð °Ã »Ã'Å'Ð ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¸? » The writing style helps us to understand better the chaming character of Jerusha Abbot t, her naive and witty thoughts and ideas.The translator should keep the atmosphere of the text and retain all syntactical and lexical expressive means.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

The Basic Maketing Concept

The report also hopes to target specific business functions and show ways of using the marketing concept to improve them. It will also identify ways in which marketing can help achieve various goals within the organisation. The Marketing Concept (alternatively known as a ‘business philosophy' or ‘a way of doing business') has become an effective way of improving the overall performance of many businesses in recent years. Companies have realised that in order to make profits and sustain them, they must consider the needs and wants of their customers. They must then compare these needs and wants to the product or service that they currently offer. The concept of marketing is based upon the idea that if the customer has a need and is satisfied with the product, then ultimately sales will be good – hence profit will be good. It goes without saying that every company's aim is to maximise their profit margin, but in order to do this, some tend to focus too much on the selling aspect and not enough on the actual customer. A Company can be orientated in different ways: A sales orientated company will focus purely on the amount that they sell, working on the assumption that sales and sales only can make money. Companies adopting this attitude have come under scrutiny, due to the actions of over-zealous salesmen who will stop at nothing to get a sale – you are probably familiar with the phrase â€Å"never trust a salesman†. This way of doing business is no longer acceptable as it has become apparent that in order to sell something, someone must want to buy it. The old style of â€Å"conning† the customer into buying goods whether they need them or not, purely to ensure a sale, is now shunned by most industries. A marketing orientated company is a customer orientated company. They take into account customer requirements and focus on them. Communication between a company and their customers is essential to ensure the success of any marketing method. Market research is used to identify specific requirements of both existing and potential customers. Satisfied customers are loyal customers who will inevitably create repeat business as well as providing free word-of-mouth advertising. This would undoubtedly result in increased profits. A production orientated company will focus purely on the production of their product. A company who cares enough about their ability to produce goods of only the highest quality possible must be admired for their dedication. However, dedication does not necessarily guarantee profit, and without profit, a company could easily fold. Although a similar concept to the one of the production orientated company (above), the product orientated company focuses on the product itself. The aim is to make the best product possible. Research and development is usually involved in the process, ensuring that there is a substantial demand for the product. It is hoped that a company will end up with a high quality product that will sell. The marketing mix consists of various factors that a company can mix to determine of there is a match between the needs of the customer and what the company currently offers them. There are four main elements of the marketing mix – Defining the characteristics of the product to meet customer requirements e.g. introducing optional features with a product that are not standard or providing an additional warranty that may not be deemed necessary in law, i.e. providing more than legally necessary with regard to the product. An important element of the marketing mix, the price places a value on the product. It is possible for the buyer and the seller to compare this price to that of competing products. It is then possible to alter the customer's perception of the value by offering additional elements such as cash trade discounts, credit facilities and easy payment terms. From the marketing point of view, the price is the ultimate way of calculating profit. Another word for distribution of the product. The product must be easily available to the customer in order for it to sell well. There are various channels in which a product can be distributed. For example, TJ600 would probably choose to distribute their goods by way of a supplier, but they could also introduce a direct mail order service to increase sales. In deciding which methods to use, you must first consider who your potential customers are and where they are likely to shop for these products. Although part of the marketing mix, promotion consists of four elements of its own called the â€Å"Promotion Mix†. These are – Advertising – paid presentations such as television advertising, newspapers and posters fliers etc Public Relations – the launch of a new product and the ways it can be promoted to the trade and consumer press Personal Selling – a method of promoting sales by means of oral communication. This can be either face to face or over the telephone. Sales Promotion – a way of enhancing consumer purchasing. This usually consists of displays, shows and exhibitions. Market Research is used to identify not only customer requirements but to identify any marketing problems that the company may be experiencing. Planning is extremely important when compiling the data to be used in the market research. In order for the results to be accurate, the questions asked must be relevant. This will involve discussions with marketing management and on occasion, outside consultants. Research can be used to improve any element of the product (detailed in the marketing mix). When considering any form of market research, it is important that any external factors affecting the results are considered. These are commonly known as PEST: Political – any new legislation that may affect the product Economic – unemployment rates, spending power of the consumer Social – environmental issues that may affect the product Technological – introduction of new technology that may affect the company Once a decision has been reached regarding the purpose and content of the research, it is necessary to determine the best way of getting a response. There are numerous ways of conducting market research, including postal surveys, telephone surveys and face to face interviews. The best response rate, however, tends to be with face to face interviews (usually questionnaires), due to the fact that an immediate response is given by the interviewee. It is vital that once data has been collected that it is carefully reviewed, in order to interpret the information given as a result of the research. Additional research may be carried out if the data shows that there is another area that can be improved upon. In order for a company to go forward in business, they must set objectives goals. These usually form questions relating to the business, such as: For example, the organisational goals of TJ600 may be to: Expand product range & distribution These objectives are usually made at a strategic level – in this case the managing director would be responsible for setting the objectives. It is reasonable to assume that TJ600 are aware of their position in the manufacturing business, due to the fact that they have been successful for 20 years. The goals detailed above give an idea of where the company would like to be in the future. All that is left is to figure out how to get there and it is at this point that marketing plays its role. Outlined below are ways that marketing could help achieve the aforementioned goals: In order to retain customer loyalty, it is important that the customer is satisfied with the product they currently buy. Market research is extremely useful in identifying customer needs and to establish whether or not they are completely satisfied with the product. It is at this point that elements of the marketing mix can be used to alter certain characteristics of an existing product e.g. if market research was to show that existing customers were basically satisfied with a product supplied by TJ600, but would welcome more after sales service, then management would want to look at the product element of the marketing mix. It is possible from there to ascertain whether extended warranties etc would be viable to the business with regards to cost effectiveness i.e. would additional staff be required? Again, market research is useful to determine whether there is a market for expansion of a certain product or expansion of an existing product to another country. Past and present success of a company cannot be taken as a guarantee for the future. Many large companies invest in regular market research to ensure that they stay one step ahead of their competitors. Although TJ600 has had continuing success in the past, it would be rather arrogant to expect the same success in the future. Expansion is a good way of improving on something that is already popular and offering the customer more choice at the same time. In today's business world, it is inevitable that at one point someone will offer customers an improvement on their current product. Investing in market research will help to ensure that, if a product would benefit from expansion, then you will be first to do it. Once a company has established their organisational goals and the marketing methods that they are going to use to achieve them, they must ensure that they have the co-operation of every department. Communication plays a vital part in marketing to ensure that the changes are implemented with maximum effect. For example, using the organisational goals detailed previously for TJ600, it would not be possible to make changes to the product range by consulting only the production department. Outlined below are the roles that other business functions would play in marketing: The finance department is usually responsible for setting annual budgets for the whole of the company and expects other departments to adhere to them. They are also responsible for setting time limits on credit facilities and these sometimes tend to be shorter than the customer would like. Communication between the finance department and marketing could look to improve credit terms if required and may allow room for compromise if a certain department required more money. It is the responsibility of the finance department to ensure that the company makes a profit and they may not be keen to spend more money or wait longer for customers to pay. This is where communication plays an important role; if it is explained from a marketing point of view that these additional costs would result in a higher market share or increased sales, then the finance department would realise that this would lead to increased profits. The production department is unlikely to welcome the idea of modifications or improvements to the product. They tend to work in long production runs and like to keep things as standard as possible. Communication between marketing and the production department may help them understand the need for improvements to a certain product – it may be that improvements are necessary in order for them to stay ahead of competitors in the same market. It is vital to the smooth running of any organisation that the right people are employed for the right jobs e.g. marketing may have highlighted the need for customised orders to be introduced, which in turn would mean that staff are required to work more flexible hours. It is the responsibility of the personnel department to ensure that the company has adequate staff to meet these requirements.

Friday, September 27, 2019

How Significant Was Kevin Rudd's Apology to the Stolen Generations Essay - 1

How Significant Was Kevin Rudd's Apology to the Stolen Generations - Essay Example In the history of political speeches in Australia, this held the record for the most emotional speech in many years. The depth of the statement had gone to deep to be assumed to be just a political statement. It also represented social views regarding the ignored states of the indigenous people on Australia (Docker, Curthoys & Peters-Little, 2010). It was also compared to a speech by human rights groups. The apology did not impact only in Australian citizens but it has a global effect in the fight against abuse of human rights. The apology statement moved the population’s perception of the indigenous people. In the past the Australian government had done a lot of harm and injustice towards the indigenous people. The apology statement was intended to mend that wrong by initiating perception change and convincing people that the government will give justice to indigenous people. The main aim of this essay is to analyze the contents and the implication of the apology statement. I t will also provide a perspective on the significance of the apology statement by Kevin Rudd’s Apology to the Stolen Generation. The release of the apology statement had been waited for a long time and anticipated. The speculations started being believed when the children of Torres Strait and other indigenous children were taken away from their parents. This action sparked a nationwide row over the matter. It is at this point when the children were termed as the stolen generation. However, the Australian government insisted that all it did was to expose the children to a more modernized and friendly environment. These claims were not accepted by the human rights groups who still insisted the act was heinous and contradicted the law. It is this argument that led to the establishment of an inquiry to look into the matter. The team was led by Ronald Wilson and Mick Dodson (Beecher, 2009). The inquiry was given the title; the national inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait children from their parents. The findings of this inquiry were founded in a report known as bringing them home report. The report contained the inquires’ recommendation of some charity and just deeds towards the children. Apart from the recommendation, the report shows that one out of three children was taken forcefully away from their parents. In the report tribulations of the children undergo while under the government were highlighted in the report. According to the report many of the children taken to foster home were unhappy with their living conditions. There were also some claims of forced labour imposed upon the children (Kahane, 2009). All these inquiries and speculations were made possible by the speech made by Kevin Rudd. The speech led to the formation of the inquiry, the writing of the report, and the recommendations to solve these issues. According to Rudolf (2009), it was for the first time in history that the indigenous people felt that they wer e being represented and their living conditions noticed to be inhumane. All this developments are attributed to the Prime Minister and his landmark apology statement. As the world celebrated the major step towards the realization of human rights, the immediate Australian government and the rest governments found a critical issue to base their debates on. The political expression made by the apology by the apology statement was very significant in Australia. 11 years prior to the statement in 2008, no government accepted the fact

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Personel management Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Personel management - Research Proposal Example The preference of this model over the other contrasting school of thought, which is the hard or Michigan model is based on the flow of the conversation, and the more appropriate model from which the analysis can be made with an in-depth discussion. The part in where analysis of practices is reiterated provides various points to commend and points to evaluate in relation to Acme Engineering's Human Resource Management practices. The soft model from where the company patterns some of its policies provides the human part of the HRM practices-in line with its attention to 'the individual.' However, there are points that are raised by the hard model of HRM that are worthy to be considered as well. This can give a more critical analysis to Acme Engineering's HRM practices. In order to critically analyze the practices, let us look at some points to commend with the company's adoption of the Harvard model in its HRM function. While the counter-arguments are points to evaluate the practices, only a few of these are drawn from the hard model of HRM in order to critically analyze the practices and effect on the organization as a whole. Attention to individual.... he benefit of making employees' concerns heard by the company, the company makes the 'individual' the core foundation of the HRM principle the company adopts. This is what Acme Engineering notes as 'getting the benefit of a union' on the employees' viewpoint by giving them voices to air out their concerns and grievances to management, without having a real union and the disadvantages of it. In an interview with Martin Lawrence, an ACME Engineering employee, this is how he has coined it, "So the first principle was people were not that part of business that was going to be taken for granted or given little consideration. People really were critical to the business, so we had to pay a lot of attention to people. "The second principle was that we decided to work without a trade union. We were going to obviously operate in a team environment with groups of people working together. For that to be effective we wanted to maintain the visibility of individual. And that if anything that has permeated all our policies and steps we have taken to get people's side of the business right - giving the individual the visibility and voice within the company has been the strongest the thread." It is a point to commend, of the HR function also serving as the conscience to the organization, giving guidelines as well as a place where grievances of employees can be brought to and resolved. The company encourages individuals to express their concerns to the company-to be outspoken, to be able to speak their minds without being punished for their thoughts and liberty in thinking. This attention to individual is further reinforced by the company's culture as reflected in the values of management and the type of new hires the recruitment sees fit to contribute to this type of

Chinese and Japanese Buddhist Calligraphy Essay

Chinese and Japanese Buddhist Calligraphy - Essay Example Geographical features, cultural traditions, and religious beliefs have influenced art in in Asian countries. Calligraphy or the art of writing characters, one of the most ubiquitous forms of art, was practiced and revered in the Chinese cultural sphere. However, it later got spread across other Asian countries like Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and Vietnam, influencing the sensibilities and styles of different calligraphies. The art of calligraphy encompasses a sense of aesthetic richness that is estimated to have spanned over four millennia. It originated from a region of diverse cultures, traditions, and beliefs, contributing much to the writing art of Asian countries, particularly China and Japan. Building on the tradition of calligraphy, Japanese and Chinese arts developed a distinct style that sets it apart from the Western art and paintings. Both Japanese and Chinese Calligraphy originated and developed primarily from the ancient writing system of China. The discussion compares and con trasts the origins, forms, and inscriptions of Japanese Buddhist Calligraphy and Chinese Buddhist Calligraphy. Thesis: The similarities in Japanese and Chinese Buddhist Calligraphy are primarily based on the Chinese writing system from which they both originated. However, the differences that developed between the calligraphy styles can be attributed to the symbols, inscriptions, language, and the manner in which it is composed.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Global threats to human beings caused by human population growth Essay

Global threats to human beings caused by human population growth - Essay Example Human overpopulation has several negative effects on the environment. Environmentalists have established that nearly all environmental problems are as a result of rapid human population growth rate. Environmental trends such as loss of biodiversity, depletion of water resources, alteration of climate and atmosphere are some of the environmental problems that are associated with human population growth. This paper only discusses how overpopulation lowers living conditions, depletes natural resources, and causes environmental degradation. In most developing countries, cultural traditions and lack of access to birth control programs have led to rapid population growth rate (Zuckerman & Jefferson, 1996). The number of people living in these regions has created pressure on land and food securities. This has led to overpopulation where the available resources are insufficient to sustain population growth and developmental growths. This results in ever increasing number of poor people acros s Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and other developing countries across the world (Zuckerman & Jefferson, 1996). This people suffer from lack of clean water, malnourishment, inadequate shelter, overcrowding, AIDS and other waterborne diseases. Most of these people lack sufficient access to basics of life, and this means that their living standards are significantly lower than those people living in developed countries. Poor living standards resulting from overpopulation in a given region is evident in most African slum dwellings. In these slums, people lack adequate access to clean drinking water and enough food. Domestic water used for cleaning and cooking in the slum dwellings is usually contaminated, and this is the reason why waterborne diseases such as cholera, bilharzia, and typhoid are common in these regions (Zuckerman & Jefferson, 1996). The second cause of human population growth is depletion of natural resources. While rapid growth of human population is slowly dimin ishing or leveling off in most developed nations such as United Kingdom and United States, the rate at which people are utilizing the world’s natural resources is significantly on the rise (Zuckerman & Jefferson, 1996). Over dependence on natural resources usually creates environmental problems such as loss of biodiversity, climate change, depletion of water resources and over fishing. The ever increasing human population requires more land for settlement. This makes human to clear natural forest and displace animals living in it, and this leads to loss of biodiversity. In addition, gases that are released into the atmosphere deplete the ozone layer, which in turn causes climate changes such as global warming. With global warming, the amount of annual rainfall received in an area decreases significantly. This has made human to adopt irrigation as the alternative source of water for the crops. Heavy irrigation, on the other hand, causes excessive loss of natural water resource s such as rivers and lakes (Zuckerman & Jefferson, 1996). Finally, overpopulation posses the biggest threat on the environment more than any other thing. Most of the environmental degradations such as depletion of the ozone layer, pollution, climate and atmosphere changes, and overfishing are common phenomena in industrialized nations (Zuckerman & Jefferson, 1996). Developed countries own capital industries, which consume a lot of natural

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Student's Post Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Student's Post - Research Paper Example Empowering leaders to mould employees’ behavior, according to Johnson, however, offers an effective approach to ensuring employees’ safety (2009). I also concur with your opinion that employees should be recognized for both their jobs and their outstanding performances because of the competitive rewards and benefits’ trend in the job market (Fay, 2009). Your post therefore succeeds in identifying significance of leadership, at different levels of an organization’s human resource, in ensuring personnel’s safety and maintaining their potentials. You offer an explorative discussion that answers the question, ‘how can managers maintain a cohesive and effective human resource base?’ This is an important question in the extremely competitive business environment in which poorly managed human resource may lead to high rates of mobility or inefficiency in workers’ output. It is therefore important that managers consider all stakeholders, including labor unions in making human resource management decisions. A leadership approach is, however, necessary in ensuring that employees utilize available empowerment programs (Johnson, 2009). Your critique of organizations’ poor approach to rewards and benefits is also important to human resource managers because employees’ motivation also depends on their knowledge of the market trends of rewards and benefits (Fay,

Monday, September 23, 2019

Project Management- MGMT412 - 1304B - 01 unit 2 Essay

Project Management- MGMT412 - 1304B - 01 unit 2 - Essay Example Product scope description: Winsome Company is under the management of a sister company known as Winsome’s sister company. The products and raw materials used by the company are purchased from different manufactures. They brand the products, educate the sales representatives and market them to the targeted audiences. In addition, the team will be required to attend the quarterly branch manager sales events to present the new kind of product they will be offering in the market to their respective audiences. The results the project will produce will entail all these sales deliverables required for the launching of the new products through research into different departments and consultation with various department heads (Harrington & McNellis, 2006). Acceptance criteria: The acceptance criteria for the introduction of the new product into the market will entails creating product specifications, producing photographs of the product in question, producing their pricing structures f or the new products and highlight the sources of their marketing materials. Stages will be involved in the acceptance criteria as goals for the Winsome Company and the new product will be reviewed by the different departments and government bodies concerned. ... The new product will be passed through the review to confirm the manufacturing process and the test the new product to be released into the market. Lastly, the product will be passed through exit criteria for reviews which will involve changes, signatures and putting the deliverables under the configuration management system. Deliverables: The project deliverables for the business will involve set quantitative objectives for the team. Secondly, the composite sales objectives will be reconciled. Lastly, to create an efficient marketing plan that will involve adjusting the qualitative of composite objectives into marketing plan objectives (Hougham & Association for Project Management, 2004). Project Exclusions: The project will not produce other deliverables that are not concerned with the sales and marketing on the new product that will be produced by the company. Its major emphasis will only be centered to focus on the sales and marketing activities conducted by the company. Constrai nts: However, in writing for the company the scope statement, there are unforeseen barriers that might hinder my process and result to poor sales and marketing strategy for the product to be produced by the company. Lack of funds might affect the process because it will hinder the research process thus interfere with the formulation of the deliverables required for the sales of the new product into the market. Time might also be a barrier to the process because the project duration might not be sufficient enough to allow for a thorough research of the sales deliverables required by the company. Assumptions: Reconciling the sales objectives may however lead to a waste of the company resources or poor management decisions for the company and the entire sales

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Healthcare Technology Essay Example for Free

Healthcare Technology Essay In such a short period of time we have seen the healthcare industry go from paper tracking to technological tracking. We continue to see healthcare care drastically each year. The article I am reviewing is an article put out by Forbes in the beginning of 2013. Even though we have seen the many transformations when it comes to technology and healthcare, this article touches on five, which I will talk about more here shortly. It is an amazing idea that potentially five years from now that we could be totally paperless in the healthcare world. Four years ago the IT departments of healthcare had a mere $343 million invested considering the potential of what was to come (Forbes, Lee 2013). Since then venture capitalists have tripled their investments into the health care IT and sunk $955 million (Forbes, Lee 2013). The article expresses that the federal government is even going to be sinking some major money into hospitals and medical offices to digitize health care. It all comes to a very good point mentioned in the article. â€Å"All of these VCs are now starting to put money into the space. And as we start getting some big wins, we’re going to see this accelerate,† said Aza Raskin, cofounder of Massive Health — a startup developing a mobile app to encourage healthier eating and other health-related tools — in an interview with Fast Company. â€Å"The smartest minds of our generation shouldn’t be working on getting us more addicted to Facebook or Twitter; they should be working on helpi ng us get — and stay — healthy† (Forbes, Lee 2013). What would people think when they are told that a machine helped their doctor figure out their diagnosis and the best possible treatment for them? Most will think it is absolute craziness, right? Funny that is brought up because researchers with the IBM corporation are currently developing a state of the art computer system that will take a doctors data and come up with the best possible outcome of a diagnosis would be for the patient. They are calling this major technological advancement Watson, and known to the medical field as Dr. Watson (Forbes, Lee 2013). This machine will be able to not only help assess the projected diagnosis of a patient, but also to keep tabs on a patients history, and allow the doctors to keep up with the latest and greatest abilities to treat patients. How often have we all been at work and have had to deal with someone that spoke a language we were unable to understand or speak for that matter? In the medical field it is  hard to track down one person i n a hospital that can speak Cantonese, Russian, German, Japanese, or many other languages that are less frequented in our day to day lives. Well, welcome Omnifluent Health! This product was developed by the Science Applications International Corporation, or the SAIC, to help with translation process in the healthcare field (Forbes, Lee 2013). This is a huge step considering doctors could just whip out there cell phones and ask a question into the microphone and get a quick translation. We would be able to break the language barrier between patients and healthcare workers. We have so many social media sites on the web now a days. Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, Twitter, G Plus, and many others. That is how we stay connected to friends and family. Now physicians have a â€Å"physicians only† media site that will allow them to contact one another in regards to taking better care of their patients. It is called Doximity (Forbes, Lee 2013). The funding for the project is at $27 million currently (Forbes, Lee 2013). I hate to have to sit in an ER for hours on end in the middle of the night to be seen for a rapid asthma onset, or with a child running a high fever and vomiting just to be told that there are over the counter remedies available at the 24 hour big box retail giant less than 10 miles away. It would be nice to be able to pop into a chat, or call where I can talk to a healthcare professional about what is going on and have a response without having to get out of a comforting place, like home, and sit for hours in a cold ER waiting room. There is now a system that gives patients the opportunity to have a medical consultation via phone or online. It is a startup company out of New York City called Sherpaa (Forbes, Le e 2013). If you were to type in â€Å"diet apps† in your Google Play Store tons of apps would pop up that are there to help you count calories, track weight loss, track exercise time and calories burned, and so on and so forth. One that the article talks about it Fitbit. It is a pedometer that tracks the sleeping patterns and activities of a person (Forbes, Lee 2013). Another one it talks about is Lark. Lark is a silent alarm clock and sleep monitor that tracks and analyzes the quality of sleep a person gets over time (Forbes, Lee 2013). In this day of technological advances there is no surprise at the countless ones that are in place in regards to the health care industry. With the amount of change from paper charting to digitized charting methods, egg timers on when med  pass is compared to computer pop ups, from easy access to patients meds to secured sign in procedures to acquire the meds, and from sitting in a waiting room for countless hours on end to picking up your phone and making a quick call is all proof that it has been time for a change in medical technology for a long time now. We are entering a new time for health care and to some, it is the era of Health 2.0 (Forbes, Lee 2013) References Lee, Ellen (2013). 5 Ways Technology Is Transforming Health Care.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

An Analysis Of Proposed E Commerce Strategy Commerce Essay

An Analysis Of Proposed E Commerce Strategy Commerce Essay The rapid enhancement in the field of technology has necessitated businesses to consider the implication of technology in performing their business activities. The technological development along with the need for pursuing higher growth by way of internationalizing the business activities in international markets is highly in demand for the businesses to stay in the market. The higher level of competition has fostered businesses to make use of digital technology in their operational activities in effectively meeting their customers need. Most of the businesses are indulging in e-commerce practices in effectively performing their operations across boundaries. E-commerce is an important medium of presenting the business offerings to customers, as it involves the usage of technology that aids businesses in reaching wider markets easily. E-business is considered as new mantra for businesses in the modern world as it not only facilitates the development of business activities worldwide bu t also allows them to advertise their products and services in a more effective and efficient manner (Plant 2000). This report is aimed at performing a preliminary analysis of the proposed e-commerce strategy for ABC organization which has been to expand its reach to international markets and serve a wide range of customers globally. The organization presently deals in electronic products that cater to the needs of electronic items for a large number of customers. ABC organization is in immense need of expanding its operation in the international markets particularly because of increasing competition from the local competitors in Australia. As a result, the e-commerce strategy in the form of achieving expansion in the international market would allow ABC to cope up with the intense level of competition and achieve sustainable growth. The strategy of ABC is to develop a website through which it can be possible to offer its products and services in the international markets. In performing the preliminary analysis of the e-commerce strategy, this report makes an evaluation of the environmental analysis through the application of important marketing tools such as porters competitive forces analysis. Apart from this, the report will also include an assessment of the potential of e-commerce strategy in meeting its strategic goals and objectives. The role of website in satisfying its key stakeholders along with the major risks that ABC has to face in expanding its business in the international market will also be critically assessed in this report. Environmental Analysis of the Proposed E-Commerce Presence The assessment of the ABC organization implies that it is currently based in Australia and company is planning to expand in the international market. For instance, the target market as decided by the company for expansion is Indian market. This is because; the Indian market is growing one for the electronics products which can offer large opportunities for higher growth of the organization. Thus, the proposed e-commerce presence of the company can be identified as the Indian market through the integration of technology in its existing operations. A complete environmental analysis of the proposed e-commerce presence of the company has been performed below: Value proposition of the e-commerce strategy: The proposed e-commerce strategy of expanding to Indian market by ABC for its electronic products through website would likely to provider higher value to its target customers. The major benefit to customers from its expansion to international markets in India is the accessibility to a wider range of electronic gadgets offered by the company. The company specializes in providing higher quality electronics product at reasonable rates and as a result, it becomes a better opportunity for the customers to avail the extra benefits offered by the company. The e-commerce strategy will not only be effective in delivering value to its customers in the Indian markets in terms of making a wide variety of electronics products for Indian customers, but it would also enable the organization to outperform the competition easily and sustain its business effectively. Further, it will be a new experience for the customers in the Indian markets as the e-commerce strategy by ABC organization will enable them to have access to wide range of electronics products. Another important feature of electronics product by ABC that will create value for its customers is the faster delivery of products to the customers after the order is placed. This will be made possible through an effective supply chain management (Currie 2004). Core competencies that can be enhanced through e-commerce presence: The e-commerce presence will help ABC organization in enhancing its core competency of quality electronics product at reasonable prices because the volume of sales would automatically increase from expansion to Indian market which will allow the company to attain economies of scale. The ultimate efficiency can be achieved in terms of reduced cost of products which can easily be transferred to final consumers for the purpose of value creation for them. Core competencies are usually critical to an organization and an improvement over the core competency leads to the attainment of competitive advantage. In case of ABC, the e-commerce presence in the international market allows an opportunity to enable the development of core competency of enhancing the supply chain management functions of the organization, as it aimed at ensuring quicker delivery of electronics products to its international customers (Epstein 2004). Market analysis and trends of expanding to Indian markets: In case of the given proposed e-commerce strategy of expansion of electronics business of ABC organization to Indian market through website, it becomes essential to perform a market analysis of such market so that better expansion and ultimately, improved growth can be achieved from such strategy. Market analysis implies the analysis of all the major factors present in the proposed market so that necessary strategies can be developed and the potential for success in such market can also be identified (Doole and Lowe 2008). The market of India for the proposed e-commerce strategy is considered to be effective as the trends and statistics shows that the internet users are growing at a rapid pace in the Indian market. For instance, the statistics shows that India accounts for 2% of the e-commerce in the Asia pacific region, but the increasing population and literacy rate in the country has increased the number of users base for such e-commerce from $2.1 billion in 2008 and is expected to increase $6 billion by 2011 (Where Does e-Commerce Stand in India 2011). Despite having the payment challenges, the market for e-commerce is expanding at a rapid pace in India. For instance, the facts shows that India has the number of people transacting online in India will likely to increase to 39 million by 2015. With respect to e-commerce market in India, the estimated online transaction will improve and there is expected a growth to $24 billion by 2015 from the current state of $6.3 billion (Indian e-commerce Market Estimated to Grow to $24 billion by 2015 from the Current $6.3 billion 2011). This signifies that the e-commerce activities will be performed at a rapid pace in such markets which will provide opportunities to the e-commerce dealers in achieving higher growth (Charman-Anderson 2011). This shows an increasing trend for e-commerce related practices in the country which would be highly beneficial for the proposed e-commerce strategy of ABC organization. Overall, the market analysis and trends for e-commerce in Indian markets shows a positive trend which would likely benefit the traders who performs their business activities over internet. E-commerce strategy evaluation through Porters five forces model: The porters five forces model is highly useful in performing an analysis of the overall industry. The five forces model includes the assessment of the industry from five different points that would be highly beneficial in the given case of making an assessment of the proposed e-commerce strategy of expanding to Indian markets for electronics products by ABC organization (Turban, 2010). An evaluation using the important five forces model for electronics industry in India is performed as follows: Â · Bargaining power of buyers: Buyers are those who purchases thee products and services offered by the company. The buyer power is considered to be large when there are few dominant buyers in the industry. In case of e-commerce for electronics products, the buyers are considered to be the final consumers as there are no such major buyers that account for larger sales of electronics products in India. This implies a lower buyer power for electronics products in India which will benefit the proposed e-commerce strategy of ABC organization. Â · Bargaining power of suppliers: Supplier power is considered to be moderate in the sense that there are various online suppliers of electronics products in India such as LG electronics, Samsung, Nokia, E-bay and many more. As there is no one major players accounting for most of the supplies for electronics product, the supplier power is considered to be moderate (Singh and Anand 2010). Â · Threat of rivalry among existing firms: As far as the threats of rivalry among existing firms, it is considered to be higher because of the presence of large number of suppliers of online electronics product in India. Apart from major e-commerce dealers for electronics products such as e-bay, Amazon etc and various global companies such as Samsung, Sony, Microsoft etc, the Indian market comprises of large number of local retailers that provides cheap electronic gadgets at reasonable rates and thereby intensifies the level of competition. Â · Threat of substitutes: In case of electronics industry in India, the threat of substitutes is considered to be lower because the substitute product for electronics is not available. Consumers have to purchase the electronics products as the need for such electronics product cannot be satisfied through any other product alternative. Â · Threat of new entrants: Although the threat of new entrant is higher because of existence of large numbers of electronic dealers in the country and also higher infrastructure cost, but by way of considering electronic medium of doing business, the threat of new entrants can be eroded. For instance, the proposed e-commerce strategy of ABC organization will not likely to face the problem of new entrants. Overall, the porters five forces analysis for electronics products in India shows the availability of large number of suppliers which intensifies the competition and as a result, ABC organization need to consider the development of effective strategies for its expansion to such markets. Strategic Goals and Objectives of ABC The proposed expansion to Indian markets through the development of website will be helpful in addressing a wide range of strategic objectives and goals of the organization. For instance, the major strategic goal is to pursue expansion to international markets so that higher growth can be achieved. Further, such international expansion also allows the opportunity for sustenance of the organization as ABC is facing the problem of intense competition in its local market in Australia from a large number of local players. Thus, the main strategic goal of ABC can be considered as achieving international expansion that can effectively be possible through its website, as the website will be designed in a manner that would be highly suited to Indian customers. In pursuing the strategic goals of international expansion, the major objectives of ABC will be: Â · To offer wider range of electronics products to its customers in Indian markets so as to allow them a choice to make a selection. Â · To offer quality products at reasonable prices so that customer can be attracted initially and a strong brand reputation can finally be developed. Â · To present the information about its offerings in its website in a manner that attracts its customer at the first instance. The attainment of all these objectives will help in the successful accomplishment of the strategic goals of achieving higher growth in the e-commerce electronics industry in India. Key Stakeholders need from website Different stakeholders have different needs from the e-commerce website. For instance, the key stakeholder i.e. customer want the availability of large number of electronics products at cheaper rates and this could easily be fulfilled through the website of the company, as it allows the company to display entire information of all its offerings and as expanding in the form of e-commerce is not highly costly for the company, the wants of customers of availing electronic products at cheaper rates can also be achieved. In addition to customer, the investors want higher return on their invested fund which can be achieved through success in the business expansion of organization through its website. The satisfaction of its key stakeholder i.e. the customer would lead to the attainment of key goals of the website of the company which has been to provide wider access to customers for electronics in India. By way of performing a rigorous marketing of website, a better reach with the customer can be established through website and thereby, a better fit between the goals of the website and the organization can ultimately be possible. E-commerce business model There are large numbers of e-commerce models that are available to businesses in performing the expansion of their business activities in international markets. In case of ABC organization, the business models that will be used for its e-commerce website is Business to Consumer model (B2C). As per the B2C model, the target of businesses is to sell its offerings to individual customers through its website. The B2C model is an important model of e-commerce that is being implemented using the web. As in case of ABC organization, the strategic goals of the organization has been to perform international expansion and to focus on the consumers for electronics in Indian markets, it can be effectively facilitated through the B2C model of e-commerce. There are various such examples that have effectively used such B2C model in achieving success globally such as Amazon, Walmart, etc. B2C is internet only stores that provides offerings to its customers through internet only and as id entified, there lies an important opportunity for e-commerce in the Indian markets, and the strategic goal of achieving higher growth can be possible through the consideration of such B2C e-commerce model (Morley and Parker 2009). Potential risks from e-commerce strategy From the proposed e-commerce strategy of the organization, there are various potential risks that company has to face and thereby required to make effective considerations for all of them. For instance, the major risk is the risk of failure of such strategy because of existence of higher level of suppliers in the electronics industry in the Indian market. Secondly, the increasing threats from hackers also lead to security risks to the organization, and as a result, effective planning is essential in order to effectively deal the security issues from the e-commerce strategy. The third major risk from the e-commerce strategy to ABC organization is the lack of experience of dealing with international customers. As the company has its operation in the Australian markets presently, the lack of international experience would cause severe problems in dealing with the customers internationally. The e-commerce strategy would also pose the risk of currency exchange, as dealing with customers i n India would require ABC to make necessary arrangements for performing is operation in Indian currency. As a result, the fluctuations in the exchange rates would increase the risk of the organization and it might be possible that company has to bear losses. All these are the major threats to ABC organization from its e-commerce business strategy of expanding to Indian markets through its website.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Illegal Immigration from Mexico: Law, People and Business

Illegal Immigration from Mexico: Law, People and Business Illegal Immigration from Mexico: The Contradiction Between the Law, the People, and Business I. Introduction Before the nineteenth century migration between Mexico and the United States of America was open and did not require any type of verification between the two countries. After the nineteenth century, individuals who crossed the border into the United States without authorization were labeled illegal immigrants[1] These immigrants typically crossed into the United States because of labor shortages and economic disparity. In this essay, I will demonstrate that in regard to Mexican and Latin American illegal immigration, there is a contradiction between the law, business, and public opinion. This will be accomplished through a sociological perspective that will highlight a conflict theory outlook. First, a historical explanation is needed to frame the problem in proper context. II. Mexican Illegal Immigration History As a result of the Mexican American war, Mexico lost a large portion if its northern territory. The Mexicans who lived in this newly acquired area were given American citizenship and movement on the new border remained in flux. In the beginning of the nineteenth century a few inspection stations were created at the ports of entry along the southern border. World war one caused a labor shortage due to a sudden relocation of a mass amount of American males. Mexicans migrated to the United States and filled in the labor shortage caused by the lack of American males. The open border policy changed during prohibition due to a large amount of Mexican alcohol smugglers. The United States border patrol was created in reaction to smuggling in nineteen twenty-four. Additionally, the great depression caused a negative opinion of Mexican immigrants and mass deportations happened between nineteen twenty-nine to nineteen thirty-nine. When the United States entered world war two, a labor shortage s pread across the country. To cure the problem, the Bracero Program was created: [W]hich allowed millions of Mexican men to come to the United States to work on, short-term, primarily agricultural labor contracts. From 1942 to 1964, 4.6 million contracts were signed.[2] The program was ended due to mistreatment of the workers and the xenophobic public opinion. Although the program was terminated, Mexicans kept crossing the border for better economic opportunities. In response to the flux of Mexican migration, the United States: [E]nacted Operation Wetback, a campaign to deport Mexican workers who were in the country illegally. The program succeeded in rounding up over 1 million people, most of them men.[3] Soon after Operation Wetback, maquiladoras were created on the northern border of Mexico to provide cheap labor for United States businesses. Maquiladoras are factories that create and distribute products. They are typically located in impoverished countries and create products for more affluent countries. In addition, an agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico termed NAFTA was created to eliminate tariffs between the countries. Although NAFTA helped the elite in Mexico, it did not help the poor, thus the amount of migration to the United States increased. III. The Contradiction Between the Law, the People, and Business The policies that the United States government has created to stop or slow down the rate of illegal immigration is in conflict with the demand of cheap labor by companies located within the United States. Additionally, public opinion constantly alters and contradicts the policy and business needs. For instance, after world war one, the Bracero program became problematic because of public opinion, therefore a new policy was created to stop the flow of migration. Karl Marx defined capitalism as an economic system composed mainly of capitalists and the proletariat, in which one class (capitalists) exploits the other (proletariat).[4] It is apparent that the dominant ideology was tacit with its workers being sent to a war, which created a need for labor. The bourgeoisie exploited the Mexican migrants for the sake of maintaining their surplus value.[5] The Mexican workers were not the original proletariat but of a lower class, called the lumpenproletariat.[6] Eventually, when the workers came back from war, they were at odds with the Mexican lumpenproletariat, which created an alienation[7] between the two workers. The bourgeoisie/capitalist helped create this contradiction and conflict between the two different workers (Mexican migrants and American workers) and ultimately benefits from a conflict between them. Additionally, the bourgeoisie promotes and creates maquiladoras on the northern border of Mexico for cheap labor in the creation of products that they will profit from. However, the American public opinion opposes these factories because the factory jobs from the United States are abolished and relocated to Mexico. The bourgeoisie controls the means of production or the things that are needed for production to take place (including tools, machinery, raw materials, and factories).[8] In sum, the bourgeoisie promotion of factories in Mexico is in conflict with the workers and public opinion. IV. Laws That Have Led to Modern Day Slave Labor The Bracero program was implemented as a solution to the labor shortage during the war. Consequently, the Mexicans who filled in the gap did not receive the same amount of pay as United State citizens.[9] An instance of modern slavery is being paid a wage that is not enough to survive on. The program was used to exploit the workers and Mexico doubted that a legitimate labor scarcity existed and viewed the Bracero program as a way for the U.S. to obtain cheap labor.[10] Indeed, it seems that the bourgeoisie used this opportunity to pay the Mexicans a lower subsistence wage[11] than their American counterparts. Marxs theory of value claims that all value comes from labor and is therefore traceable, in capitalism, to the worker,[12] which is evident by the exploitation of the workers surplus value. Once the American workers came back from war, a campaign by the people was created to deport the Mexican workers. The campaign was successful and Operation Wetback was created in conjunction to sanctions on immigration. Consequently, once these laws were created, the term illegal alien became widely used. These so called illegal aliens came to the United States in defiance to newly created laws and were given an even lower wage. In sum, these new policies created an underclass of workers that the bourgeoisie exploited. Other policies such as NAFTA created a work scarcity in Mexico that has led to more illegal migration into the United States that the bourgeoisie is eager to exploit. Indeed, since the wages of many Mexican immigrants is not enough to survive on, policies have lead to this exploitation which can be labeled as modern day slave labor. V. Confronting the Problem It seems that neither the American nor the Mexican workers are aware of the exploitation that the bourgeoisie uses for monetary growth. Marx claimed that even the bourgeoisie may not be aware of this exploitation. He claims, The capitalists think that they are being rewarded, not because of their exploitation of the workers, but for their cleverness, their capital investment, their manipulation of the market, and so on. The capitalists are too busy making more money, in money grubbing, ever to get a true understanding of the exploitative nature if their relationship with workers.[13] Marx termed this as false consciousness, and he believed that the workers were capable of being aware of this exploitation through class consciousness. Therefore, a solution to this inequality first requires that the worker be aware of the inequality and then take action to overcome the issue of exploitation, otherwise known as praxis.[14] Consequently, this may be a difficult task, due to the fact that the different workers are in a constant clash with themselves and the bourgeoisie. VI. Conclusion In regard to illegal immigration in the United States, there is a contradiction between the law, business, and public opinion. The border between the United States and Mexico remained open to migration until the early nineteenth century. However, when in a labor shortage, the United States would open its borders to Mexican workers. Once workers returned, the borders were closed, and laws and programs were created to halt or slow down migration. These new policies did not completely stop migration and in some cases may have increased it. Subsequently, these new illegal immigrants were taken advantage of by the bourgeoisie with a salary that was below a subsistent wage, which can be labeled as modern day slavery. Without consciousness, it seems that the workers will be stuck in a revolving Sisyphean conflict between each other and the capitalists. [1] In addition, derogatory terms were used by the public and politicians. [2] [3] [4] Book pg 25 [5] Define surplus value [6] Define lumpenprol [7] Define alienation [8] Pg 25 [9] [10] ibid [11] Define subsistence [12] Pg26 [13] Pg27 [14] Define praxis

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Sins Ability to Control a Person in The Scarlet Letter :: essays research papers

Sin's Ability to Control a Person Sin is a major theme in The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne. In The Scarlet Letter, sin is practiced throughout a few of the characters. The only difference amongst them is the way that they try to atone for it or be completely enveloped by it. Sin can take control of a person and devour them completely to the point of no return. Hester at first felt that her sin had taken away everything that she had and left her with only one thing, Pearl. When she first walked out of the prison and onto the scaffold, she was full of pride but from that point on, she was isolated from her community and forced to live in the forest with only her baby. Hester felt that suicide was the only thing she deserved after committing adultery. She says, "I have thought of death, have wished for it?would even have prayed for it, were it fit that such as I should pray for anything. Yet, if death be in this cup, I bid thee think again, ere thou beholdest me quaff it. See! it is even now at my lips." As time passes by, Hester?s personality gradually changes and she becomes a completely different person. She has become more caring although her lifestyle became worse. As for Reverend Dimmesdale, he is completely enveloped by his guilt from the sin that he has committed and is unable to come forward to confess it. Instead, he tortures himself each and every day. Hawthorne writes, ?His [Dimmesdale?s] inward trouble drove him to practices more in accordance with the old, corrupted faith of Rome than with the better light of the church ? In Mr. Dimmesdale's secret closet, under lock and key, there was a bloody scourge.? Later, he says that he tries to confess by saying that he has sinned but the Puritan community misinterprets it as a sign of him being a saint and that if he has sinned then what are they. Chillingworth is also a sinner because he pretends to be a physician when he really isn?t and takes that role to torture Reverend Dimmesdale. Chillingworth tortures Dimmesdale slowly by hurting him both physically and mentally. During this time he pretends to take care of him in which he really isn?t. Hawthorne writes, ?Calm, gentle, passionless, as he appeared, there was ? a quiet depth of malice ? but active now, in this unfortunate old man ? imagine a more intimate revenge ? upon an enemy.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

A Career in Education Essay -- career essays

A career in education can be a rewarding yet challenging field. Becoming a teacher is a unique career in which there will be various titles, from being a communicator, social worker, disciplinarian, evaluator, role model, and at times a parent. Being able to change the lives and mold minds of young children is something I have always wanted to do. Throughout my research and personal interview, I have discovered what my salary will be like, the lifestyle impact, future projections, and the credential requirements needed to accomplish becoming an educator. The requirements for becoming an educator vary from state to state because each state has its own set of rules when it comes to their educators. For example, Wisconsin requires that their educators have a Bachelor’s degree, pass the Praxis II exam and the edTPA (Teacher Performance Assessment) and that they know how to communicate, have knowledge of what they are teaching, understand different learning styles, children’s growth, know how to evaluate, manage a classroom and plan lessons (Teacher Education, Professional Development & Licensing). For UWM graduation requirements, I must complete a human relations class so that I know how to understand different cultures and how to communicate with different types of people. I also must have credits in fine arts, social sciences, and natural sciences; a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.75 in all professional education coursework, a full day/semester during the final year of the program for field experience, and earn a C or bette r in student teaching to be eligible (Academic Programs). According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the future employment projection for educators is expected to grow 17% from 2010 to 2020 simply because of... long working hours teachers deal with a lot of emotional and physical stress; dealing with parents, administrators and behavioral issues, educators have to keep personal and emotional reactions separate from their professional reactions, when it comes to dealing with behavior issues in the classrooms and also dealing with difficult parents; learning how to cope and deal with tension and even sometimes hostile environments are all a part of being a teacher. Dealing with superiors is also stressful for teachers because although as an educator our job is to evaluate students, teachers also are evaluated themselves, and evaluations can heavily determine if they will continue to have a job in that specific school (Robin Grusko and Judy Kramer). Although there are beautiful and rewarding things that come with being a teacher, the personal life can be challenging.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Quantative analysis of your food diary Essay

You need to write up your analysis of your food diary. State how long you have kept your food diary for, and write about the following points: 1. Consider how you have recorded your information. Where have you got your information from that will be analysed – how useful are these sources of information? (e.g food labels, weighing portions, recipes etc) 2. Research the Recommended Nutritional Intakes for your age and gender on . Choose 3 whole days of your food diary how does your food intake compare to the recommended Nutritional Intakes. Remember you need to break the food composition down into the main food groups including vitamins (in particular vitamin C) and the energy from fat in your food. What are the strengths and weaknesses of your food intake? Consider other recommended food intake sources such as five a day and food standards agency eatwell plate. How does your food intake measure up to this? 3. You may find it useful to research how many calories you should be intaking for your lifestyle. (a useful site ) 4. Consider the amount of activity that you have done over the course of the week – what are the strengths and weaknesses of this level of activity? (another useful site ) 5. Finally in the analysis consider any Lifestyle influences: as relevant, eg personal food preferences, cultural, economic, social, availability of 6. time; day-to-day variations, e.g week days/weekends Once you have done this you need to move on to part 2 of the assignment task! Part 2 1. Provide a 7 day nutritional plan to improve your nutritional health. 2. You should include a meal plan which addresses all of the issues analysed in your food diary analysis. This includes what you are eating and how it relates to social policy as stated above. 3. Consider the change for life campaign ( what can you include in your nutritional plan that changes your life? 4. What about your activity levels? In your plan you need to consider your levels of activity analysed in your food diary. How can you improve these? (remember it is not just about joining a gym, you could consider walking up the stairs instead of taking the lift!!) 5. Finally look again at the issues that you have highlighted in terms of lifestyle factors that influence – what can you do to change them? (think outside of the box here, and be realistic). Include these changes in your plan. 6. You may design and present this information in any format you wish, however, you might want to consider some kind of template or grid to present your information on. 7. Remember your nutritional plan must be SMART 8. In your plan you should assess how the plan will meet and improve your nutritional needs – you need to relate your information to social policy (five a day, change for life, RNI, the eatwell plate) (M3) 9. You should also evaluate how the changes that you are making might improve your health and wellbeing. (D2) (useful sites Remember all of the sites that you use must be referenced! That is both in the text using Harvard referencing and by including a reference sheet!

Monday, September 16, 2019

How to integrate computers into the curriculum Essay

Computer technology has become an integral part of every individual’s life. The advent of computers and their explosive use in practically every field has jolted the human race into what experts call the informational revolution (Veneris, 1984). In the current era, information ahs become so important and central to a business, it has occupied its true place as a resource rather than a by product of business operations. With the current society now headed towards what Drucker (n. d.) claims to be the next information revolution, it is only imperative that we train our future generations in this field like we do in any other subject that is considered to be vital by societal standards such as language, mathematics, general science etc. Being a fairly new field of study when compared to other courses of a curriculum, IT and such are constantly changing due to the technological leaps made everyday. A thing invented today becomes obsolete a month later. Skeptics argued that the technological bubble has burst; leaving in its wake many people broke who invested in dot com companies. This might be true but only to the extent where the boom in the jobs market is not as exponential as it used to be. If we look at the new products that come on market shelves every fifteen days or so, it will be proof enough for the fact that technology has never seen a better time than this before. And this creates problems when one tries to incorporate IT in school curricula. It becomes hard for schools to keep up with the ace of technology and many schools fail to fully equip their students with the skill set needed to compete effectively in the new world. Schools usually pose some questions regarding the matter such as: ? Can computer applications help improve student performance in basic skills and other key areas? ? For what specific skill areas, grade levels, and content areas are computer applications most effective? ? Which kinds and levels of students seem to profit most from using computers to learn? ? Which kinds of computer applications are most effective for which skill and content areas? ? Can computer applications improve students’ attitudes toward school, learning, and their abilities to learn? ? Will improved attitudes translate into better performance in school? These are in fact the key points that they should address and try to achieve the answers to when designing their course strategies. Guidelines to consider are: ? Grade and intellectual level of students ? Scope of subject ? Updating with external sources ? Type of instructor (industry experience or not) These are the most important factors that an institution should consider while designing the curriculum. The appropriate software too is important to compliment the overall course structure. The software to be used should be decided upon: ? User friendliness of software ? Degree of specialization ? Subject area (programming, multimedia etc. ) ? Skill level of students The hardware should be one that can support the requirement of the software. For example an application by Adobe such as the Adobe reader requires a minimum of a Pentium 2 but windows XP requires a minimum of a Pentium 3 processor to function. Hardware requirements are usually best when taken from the software vendor. One thing to note is that students should be exposed to as man types of hardware as they would come across in the corporate environment ranging from keyboards, printers to graphics tablets. References: Abernethy K. , T. Kevin, & Piegari G. Assessing the impact of the emerging discipline of information technology on computing curricula: some experiences.Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges. Volume 22 Issue 2. Publisher: Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges. Dreher F. , Cummings M. , & Harris J. (2006). The role of IT policies in the CS/IS curricula. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges. Volume 22 Issue 2 Publisher: Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges Drucker P. (n. d. ). The Next Information Revolution. ASAP: E-Commerce. Retrieved January 26, 2007, from http://www. versaggi. net/ecommerce/articles/drucker-inforevolt. htm Veneris, Y (1984). The Informational Revolution, Cybernetics and Urban Modeling. PhD Thesis. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Zhu L. , & Tang C. (2006). A module-based integration of information retrieval into undergraduate curricula. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, Volume 22 Issue 2 Publisher: Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Role of Youth in Eradicating Corruption

Laser and its medical applications Presented by S. vignesh J. sabastian The Advent of the â€Å"Laser Scalpel† Early experimenters with medical lasers pointed out that there are surgical operations that are difficult to perform with the conventional scalpel and that a laser beam might be used instead. Initial trials showed that a finely focused beam from a carbon dioxide gas laser could cut through human tissue easily and neatly. The surgeon could direct the beam from any angle by using a mirror mounted on a movable metal arm. Several advantages of laser surgery quickly became apparent.First, the light beam is consistent, which means that it gives off the same amount of energy from In this photo taken during open-heart surgery, a doctor uses a laser probe to punch small holes in the patient's heart muscle to increase the organ's blood flow. one second to the next. So as long as the beam is moving along, the cut it makes (the incision) does not vary in depth; whereas when using a scalpel a doctor can accidentally make part of the incision too deep. A second advantage of the surgical laser is that the hot beam cauterizes, or seals off, the open blood vessels as it moves along. This works well mainly for small vessels, such as those in the skin. The doctor still has to seal off the larger blood vessels using conventional methods. ) Still another advantage is that the cells in human tissue do not conduct heat very well, so the skin or any other tissue near the laser incision does not get very hot and is not affected by the beam. This advantage of laser surgery is very helpful when a doctor must operate on a tiny area that is surrounded by healthy tissue or organs. It should be pointed out that the â€Å"laser scalpel† is not necessarily the best tool to use in every operation.Some doctors feel that while the laser is useful in some situations, it will never totally replace the scalpel. Others are more optimistic and see a day when more advanced lasers will make the scalpel a thing of the past. The second of these views may prove to be the most accurate, for surgical use of lasers is rapidly advancing. At first, lasers were considered most effective in operating on areas that are easy to reach—areas on the body's exterior, including the skin, mouth, nose, ears, and eyes. But in recent years doctors have demonstrated remarkable progress in developing laser techniques for use in internal exploration and surgery.Of course, in order to be able to direct the laser beam the doctor must be able to see inside the body. In some cases this is a simple matter of making an incision and opening up the area to be operated on. But there are situations in which this step can be avoided. Cleaning Arteries with Light For instance, lasers are increasingly used to clean plaque from people's arteries. Plaque is a tough fatty substance that can build up on the inside walls of the arteries. Eventually the vessels can get so clogged that blood do es not flow normally, and the result can be a heart attack or stroke, both of which are serious and sometimes fatal.The traditional method for removing the plaque involves opening the chest and making several incisions, a long and sometimes risky operation. It is also expensive and requires weeks for recovery. An effective alternative is to use a laser beam to burn away the plaque. The key to making this work is the doctor's ability to see inside the artery and direct the beam, another area in which fiber optics and lasers are combined into a modern wonder tool. An optic fiber that has been connected to a tiny television camera can be inserted into an artery.These elements now become a miniature sensor that allows the doctor and nurses to see inside the artery while a second fiber is inserted to carry the bursts of light that will burn away the plaque. The technique works in the following way. The fiber-optic array is inserted into a blood vessel in an arm or leg and moved slowly in to the area of the heart and blocked arteries. When the array is in place the laser is fired and the plaque destroyed, and then the exhaust vapors are sucked back through a tiny hollow tube that is inserted along with the optical fibers.When the artery has been cleaned out the doctor removes the fibers and tube, and the operation is finished. This medical process is known as laser angioplasty. It has several obvious advantages. First, no incision is needed (except for the small one in the vessel to insert the fibers). There is also little or no bleeding, and the patient can enjoy total recovery in a day or two. Laser angioplasty does have some potential risks that must be considered. First, when the laser beam fires at the plaque it must be aimed very carefully ecause a slight miss could cut through the wall of the artery and cause serious bleeding. The patient's chest would then have to be opened up after all. Another problem involves small pieces of burnt debris from the Surgeons use a tiny laser to cut away tissue in a gallbladder operation. The laser and a tiny camera are inserted into the navel, so no abdominal incision is necessary. . Lasers Heal and Reshape the Eyes Some of the most remarkable breakthroughs for medical lasers have been in the area of ophthalmology, the study of the structure and diseases of the eye.One reason that laser beams are so useful in treating the eye is that the cornea, the coating that covers the eyeball and admits light into the interior of the eye, is transparent. Since it is designed to admit ordinary light, the cornea lets in laser light just as well and remains unaffected by the beam. First, the laser is very useful in removing extraneous blood vessels that can form on the retina—the thin, light-sensitive membrane at the back of the eyeball. It is on the retina that the images of the things the eye sees are formed. Damage to the retina can sometimes cause blindness.The laser most often used in the treatment of this condition is powered by a medium of argon gas. The doctor aims the beam through the cornea and burns away the tangle of blood vessels covering the retina. The procedure takes only a few minutes and can be done in the doctor's office. The laser can also repair a detached retina—one that has broken loose from the rear part of the eyeball. Before the advent of lasers detached retinas had to be repaired by hand, and because the retina is so delicate this was a very difficult operation to perform. Using the argon laser, the doctor can actually â€Å"weld† the torn retina back in place.It is perhaps a strange coincidence that Gordon Gould, one of the original inventors of the laser, later had one of his own retinas repaired this way. Another condition that affects the eye is glaucoma, which is characterized by the buildup of fluid in the eye. Normally the eye's natural fluids drain away a little at a time, and the eye stays healthy. In eyes impaired with glaucoma the fluid does not drain properly, and the buildup affects vision; blindness can sometimes result. In some cases drugs can be used to treat glaucoma. If the drugs fail, however, many doctors now turn to the laser to avoid onventional surgery. The laser punches a hole in a preplanned spot and the fluid drains out through the hole. Again, the treatment can be performed in a doctor's office instead of a hospital. Using Lasers for Eye Surgery The laser works like a sewing machine to repair a detached retina, the membrane that lines the interior of the eye. The laser beam is adjusted so that it can pass harmlessly through the lens and focus on tiny spots around the damaged area of the retina. When it is focused, the beam has the intensity to â€Å"weld† or seal the detached area of the retina back against the wall of the eyeball.The patient's eyeglass prescription is literally carved inside the cornea with the beam of an excimer laser [a laser device that produces pulses of ultraviolet, or UV, light]. A small flap of the cornea is first removed with a precision knife . . . and an A patient undergoes eye surgery performed by a laser beam. In addition to treating detached retinas, lasers can remove cataracts. inner portion of the cornea is exposed to the excimer laser. After the prescription is carved, the corneal flap that was opened is then put back into place over the ablated [surgically altered] cornea. 6 LASIK does not come without risks.The changes it makes in the cornea are permanent, and the danger of unexpected damage is ever present. However, the procedure has become increasingly popular each year; about a million Americans had it done in the year 2000, and about four thousand surgeons in the United States were trained to perform it. Some Cosmetic Uses of Lasers Medical lasers are also widely used for various types of cosmetic surgery, including the removal of certain kinds of birthmarks. Port-wine stains, reddish purple skin blotches that appear on about thre e out of every one thousand children, are an example.Such stains can mark any part of the body but are most commonly found on the face and neck. The medical laser is able to remove a port-wine stain for the same reason that a military laser is able to flash a message to a submerged submarine. Both lasers take advantage of the monochromatic quality of laser light, that is, its ability to shine in one specific color. The stain is made up of thousands of tiny malformed blood vessels that have a definite reddish purple color. This color very strongly absorbs a certain shade of green light. In fact, that is why the stain looks red.It absorbs the green and other colors in white light but reflects the red back to people's eyes. To treat the stain, the doctor runs a wide low-power beam of green light across the discolored area. The mass of blood vessels in the stain absorbs the energetic laser light and becomes so hot that it is actually burned away. The surrounding skin is a different colo r than the stain, so that skin absorbs only small amounts of the beam and remains unburned. (Of course, the burned A doctor uses an argon laser to remove a port-wine stain, a kind of birthmark.Unwanted tissue is burned away while normal skin remains undamaged. areas must heal, and during this process some minor scarring sometimes occurs. ) Laser-Assisted Dentistry Dentistry is another branch of medicine that has benefited tremendously from laser technology. Indeed, lasers have made some people stop dreading a visit to the dentist. No one enjoys having a cavity drilled, of course. It usually requires an anesthetic (a painkiller like novocaine) that causes uncomfortable numbness in the mouth; also, the sound of the drill can be irritating or even sickening to some people.Many dentists now employ an Nd-YAG laser (which uses a crystal for its lasing medium) instead of a drill for most cavities. The laser treatment takes advantage of the simple fact that the material that forms in a cavi ty is much softer than the enamel (the hard part of a tooth). The laser is set at a power that is just strong enough to eliminate the decayed tissue but not strong enough to harm the enamel. When treating a very deep cavity bleeding sometimes occurs, and the laser beam often seals off blood vessels and stops the bleeding. The most often asked question about treating cavities with lasers is: Does it hurt?The answer is no. Each burst of laser light from a dental laser lasts only thirty-trillionths of a second, much faster than the amount of time a nerve takes to trigger pain. In other words, the beam would have to last 100 million times longer in order to cause any discomfort. So this sort of treatment requires no anesthetic. Advantages of Lasers for Dental Surgery In this excerpt from an article in The Dental Clinics of North America Robert A. Strauss of the Medical College of Virginia mentions some of the advantages of using lasers for oral surgery. Decreased post-operative swelling is characteristic of laser use [for oral surgery].Decreased swelling allows for increased safety when performing surgery within the airway [the mouth] . . . and increases the range of surgery that oral surgeons can perform safely without fear of airway compromise. This effect allows the surgeon to perform many procedures in an office or outpatient facility that previously would have required hospitalization. . . . Tissue healing and scarring are also improved with the use of the laser. . . . Laser wounds generally heal with minimal scar formation and . . . often can be left unsutured [without stitches], another distinct advantage. Thus the role of laser in medical field is most predominant.