Saturday, August 31, 2019

Individual Study Guide Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary Essay

Complete the simulation, Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing, located on the student website. Write a 1,050- to 1,450-word summary in which you address the following for each of the three major phases in the simulation: The situation Your recommended solutions, including why Your results Summarize the different marketing components addressed in this simulation by answering the following questions: What is the relationship between differentiation and positioning of products or services? Is the repositioning of the product in the simulation as you had expected it to be? Explain why or why not. What is the effect of the product life cycle on marketing? What effect did the product life cycle have on the product in the simulation? Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.Complete the simulation, Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing, located on the student website. Write a 1,050- to 1,450-word summary in which you address the following for each of the three major phases in the simulation: The situation Your recommended solutions, including why Your results Summarize the different marketing components addressed in this simulation by  answering the following questions: What is the relationship between differentiation and positioning of products or services? Is the repositioning of the product in the simulation as you had expected it to be? Explain why or why not. What is the effect of the product life cycle on marketing? What effect did the product life cycle have on the product in the simulation? Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Rashomon Essay

In the 1950’s Japanese crime, mystery, and drama film, â€Å"Rashomon†, directed by Akira Kurosawa, provides not only a number of intuitions into the human mind, but while doing so, is also able to question the nature of truth itself. The story unfolds in different and unexpected ways that gives one interesting arguments on the nature of truth, human weaknesses and trust. Akira Kurosawa’s tells the story of a murder. It flashes back to the murder four times and the story of the murder is told by a different character each time, while three of them tell their reasonable though completely incompatible versions of the story. By the usage of music, specific camera shots, and the scenery this film not only makes one think about truth, but most importantly if humans can survive without it. Akira Kurosawa’s first flashback within a flashback was the woodcutter who claimed to the authorities that he founded the dead body in the middle of the woods. He first begins by telling his version of the story to a commoner; as this flashback takes place many suspicions are being made. As the flashback begins it starts with a shot of the sun moving west through the cracks of branches and leaves above, then back to him walking through a knot of trees and bushes. The scenery is gray, dark, and gloomy; the melody while he walks is being played repeatedly by drums, oboes, and pungi. Just by these first analyses made in the woodcutters’ first flashback one can tell that he might be lying. There are four shots being shown of leaves and branches moving against clear skies in different directions and between each of those four shots it shows him walking through the woods in circles. The meaning of these shots and the repetitiveness of the melody might indicate that the woodcutter was lying about how he had found the dead body; he was trying to figure out a way of making the story sound reasonable by using the â€Å"It was a beautiful sunny day and I was walking through the woods to chop some wood† type of story line. † The woodcutter was basically just lost in his own lie. Furthermore, the woodcutter coming upon each of the objects while taking his â€Å"everyday stroll† made it even more believable to the authorities because it seemed as if he was â€Å"a regular woodcutter taking his usual path The woman’s version of the story was quite different from the woodcutters, obviously because she was the â€Å"victim†. The way she is portrayed in her own flashback is innocent, abused, and not cared/loved by her husband anymore. After the bandit took advantage of her and she tries to run towards her husband, she looks like a bright white dove trying to run to her savior. However, once the bandit pushes her to the ground the scenery turns dark and he rushes out through the dark woods. When the woman and samurai are alone, the woman just cries her eyes out as a sign to the authorities that she has been hurt and did not do anything to deserve this. Furthermore, when the woman is face to face with her husband, she looks at him; her eyes start to get wider and she starts to back away slowly as if he was a monster. His face is shown as serious, shadows hit his face, and he is still. That is when the woman backs away even faster and slowly covers her face with her hands. Kurosawa’s purpose here was probably to picture her as if she was trying to hide behind a mask because she knows she was lying, but did not want to tell the authorities what really happened. When she goes back up to her husband, after she ran to get a dagger, they look at each other once more and she insists for him to kill her, yet he just stands there. Once that occurs the scenery turns dark and her face becomes hit by shadows and fright. She begins to wobble around in front of her husband with a dagger pointing at him; this shot is probably to be shown as if her husband was a mirror, so basically she is looking at her reflection, which in this case is her husband who in her story is delineated as a monster and finally gets rid of â€Å"it† by killing him. After the woodcutter admits to the priest and the commoner that he had witnessed the crime, no one had any trust in him anymore. Just as all seems dreary and hopeless, a baby appears behind the gate. The woodcutter redeems himself and humanity in the eyes of the troubled priest, by adopting the infant. The infant is a sign of hope and a new beginning and once he adopted the infant the rain, the confusion, the dark and gloomy scenery all vanished. Each person can see the same event, but perceive the details of the event differently. As stated by the commoner, â€Å"Who’s honest nowadays? Everyone wants to forget nasty things so they invent different stories, it’s easier† (Rashomon). In this case the woodcutter knew the truth but did not tell the authorities because he was scared they would have blamed him as a uspect and he did not want to get involved. On the other hand the woman actually told the authorities that she had stabbed him. Nonetheless, she lied because she did not want them to know that a pure, noble woman surrendered to the love of a bandit and would stay with whoever won a duel between them. Today in a trial it would be very difficult to know, b ased solely on eyewitness accounts, just what is the truth. Akira Kurosawa’s way of portraying these flashbacks to each character created the viewers to believe their lies. However, the scenery, the shots taken, and the music of each individual give an idea as to who is lying; such as, the woodcutter who’s lie were portrayed when he walked through the forest for a long time before getting to his point, and the woman who cried to make them believe she was innocent of her own actions. It is difficult to forget the truth, but easier to cover it. Everyone should always tell the truth; even though, if you are a suspect. Without honesty people that are supposed to be punished for their crimes aren’t; they are just let free to wonder off and commit some other felonies.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Marketing Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Marketing Analysis - Essay Example The high portaging prices, and bureaucracies imposed by sale of bionic products is based on the high production costs and minimized vendor efficiency. The economic policies promote competition through influencing positive performance of sales in artificial limbs. The bionic limb products have extensive sales in the country based on the expected turns of lower annual performance and differences in economic aspects. Primarily, the connection bases its application on global financial crisis that affects most countries’ financial statuses. The governments of such countries predict slow economic growth of their GDP leading to reduced levels of incomes. The implosion on customers’ buying behavior is reduced purchases and solicitation of alternative forms of therapy (Baines & Fill, 2014, p 74). The component is a significant implication of the consideration of bionic components used in making life easier for the users’ lives (Baines & Fill, 2014, p 47). The growth in global population includes various elements of influences within the bionic limb industry. There is an increasing ratio of bionic devices in use through higher levels of patients. The competition increment allows for developments in technology and growth in influence of financial positions for each element of the market. The application of technology offers a viable approach to embracing diversity based on manufacturing’s maturity and capacity (Baines & Fill, 2014, p 23). This concept impacts differently on various levels of innovation in the company. Diversification of technologies allows for increased innovation, interaction, integration, and development potential. The increase in healthcare expenditure coupled with the emergence of extra healthcare facilities the emerging economies to provide more growth opportunities among markets for medical bionic implants. The customers

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Ethical review on preimplanation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Essay

Ethical review on preimplanation genetic diagnosis (PGD) - Essay Example hemophilia or cystic fibrosis). The procedure of PGD involves the following steps. It is usually performed after a woman’s eggs have been harvested and fertilized by her partner’s sperm but before the fertilized eggs have been transferred back to her uterus. When the fertilized egg has multiplied to four and 10-cell development stage, one or two cells known as blastomeres are gently removed from each embryo. This is usually done using a microsurgery technique similar to that used in ICSI. The DNA from the removed blastomeres is then studied for any genetic diseases or disorders. If any are found to be having diseases or disorders, then those embryos are destroyed. Only those healthy embryos with no diseased genes will be transferred back to the mother. PGD has helped to diagnose numerous diseases and disorders classified as either chromosomal disorders, single gene defects or sex-linked disorders. The science of PGD has advanced so much that specific chromosomes are tested for specific disorders, for example Chromosome 13 is analysed for Breast and ovarian cancers, deafness, Wilson Disease; Chromosome 15 for Marfan Syndrome, Tay-Sachs Disease; Chromosome 16 for Polycystic kidney disease, Alpha thalassemia; Chromosome 17 for Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Chromosome 18 for Niemann-Pick Disease, pancreatic cancer; Chromosome 21 for Downs Syndrome; Chromosome X for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Turners Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome; and Chromosome Y for Acute myeloidleukemia ( 2005). The purpose of this paper is to explain current and likely future uses of PGD, and provide a complete review on the ethical issues on PGD. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a common topic for debate as it is the technique by which early human embryos are genetically screened and then discarded or placed in the uterus. Reports that embryos are being screened for new indications such as

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Political Philosophy (Hobbes' ideas about human nature) Essay

Political Philosophy (Hobbes' ideas about human nature) - Essay Example Both these influences seem to have greater influence over the way Hobbes political thoughts developed over the period of time. His thoughts on political philosophy were therefore strongly oriented towards separating religion from the politics and state. Hobbes strongly advocated the minimal role of religious orthodoxy into the affairs of the government and resultantly he suggests that it is the sovereign which should have an authority over the religion. What is critical to note that Hobbes suggested that a person’s duties to God must not override his duties to the sovereign? This therefore makes his overall political philosophy different from earlier thoughts on the relationship between religion and the politics. This paper will discuss the philosophy of Hobbes and will make a comparison and contrast between his philosophy and that of Locke. Hobbes on Human Nature One of the most important difficulties while one reads about Hobbes’s thoughts on the human nature is the f act that his ideas on human nature cannot be easily separated from his overall political philosophy. ... Hobbes therefore strongly believed that Man is not the social animal because a society cannot exist without the establishment of a government. This orientation of the Hobbes towards the nature of the man therefore suggests that man will be at war with each other perpetually. Such tendency of the man therefore can only be controlled if there is a strong sovereign with absolute powers to control such instinctive nature of man. It is because of this reason that Hobbes believes that absolute monarchy may be the right kind of political system to control such institutive nature of man. To better understand the political philosophy of Hobbes and his ideas on human nature, it is also important to understand his concept of the state of the nature. The state of nature is used as a hypothetical condition which preceded the government. Hobbes increasingly views human nature from the perspective of the state of the nature because he believe that the human nature in the state of nature is quite po or, brutish, solitary as well as short. He therefore argues that the man essentially is a selfish individual and in the absence of any government, his selfishness can prevent the establishment of a social or society. He therefore argues that in order to accommodate the individual rights within a society, it is important for individuals to cede some of their rights and others will also follow the same. That is how the society is created out of the essential human nature. (Martinich) He also went on to argue that a man cannot, by his nature, find god or evil and therefore in order to live in peace, it is important for him to subjugate him to an authority of the government which is strong enough to provide the required support to an individual. Another

Monday, August 26, 2019

Talent Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Talent Management - Essay Example To this end, they needs must be cognizant of the fact that to become business leaders, high performing and motivated employees are critical. Business leaders who implement the best talent management systems will at the end of the day be more prepared than their counterparts to capitalize on new opportunities and maximize their usage of limited resources (Kehinde, 2012). In a nutshell, strategic talent management is a process through which an organization ensures it has placed the right people for the right jobs at the right place and time so as to achieve the long and short term goals and objectives. The contention of this paper will be to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the talent management approach as well try to justify its application in an organization with global latitude, and the need to actively involve employees’ opinion due to cultural variants owing to the international latitude of the firms operations. Benefits and Drawbacks As aforementioned, through proper talent management stratagem the skills and strengths of employees can be assessed and the HR managers will make recruitment, promotion and deployment decisions form a point of information. Ideally, each employee would be placed at the point where they are most productive and this is significant in reducing wastage and enhancing both individual and collective productivity. Secondly, there are always firms that are willing to poach talent and if an organization does not nurture its employees, they could end up losing their best talent to the competition (Global Novations, 2012). Therefore, when firms focus on the recruitment and retention programs that will allow them to contract and maintain their employees through the talent approach they will be have a low staff turnover which will contribute to the organization’s growth and stability (Li and Scullion, 2010). Employees feel motivated and less inclined to change jobs if they feel their growth needs are being attended to by t heir employers and that they can be rewarded for their skills, if they are neglected, they may end up leaving. Talent management planning is useful in aligning the firms strategic plan with the overall business needs, through goal alignment job roles for individual employees and teams can be clarified. In addition, employees working in such a system are likely to have a heighted sense of ownership for the firms decisions and products thus they will intrinsically motivated to perform. The talent management approach also comes with the benefit of increasing success and productivity while at the same time reducing the risk factors (HR Focus, 2010). A study by the talent management institute indicated that the success rate of organizations that align their operational strategy to talent management is about 72% which puts it ahead other firms which average at 58% success (Professional Management Institute, p. 2). A possible drawback of the talent management approach is that it has been f ound to have the potential to result in arrested in personal and moral development, Glover et al (1997) discovered that an individual’s level of experience was directly proportional to their propensity for ethical decision making. However a different study found that the more one rise in seniority the more their predisposition for unethical action increases (Ford & Richardson, 1994), by considering the results of both

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Outsourcing Work Overseas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Outsourcing Work Overseas - Essay Example For instance, if an employee in the current home-based organization is given a salary rate of $10 per hour and outsourcing the job would mean that the same position is given an acceptable salary of only $5 per hour, then, a savings of $5 per person per hour would be generated. Likewise, this option also considers that the skills, competencies and qualifications of the workforce are significantly at par with those employees at home. Concurrently, the home organization acknowledges being more vigilant in terms of addressing security and control issues; which could be compromised or threatened due to outsourcing – given the external environment that puts the risk to the home organization. These issues could be justified by placing stringent control measures as well as regular monitoring and performance evaluation schemes. Finally, in terms of technological applications, as emphasized by Putra (2011), is in terms of risk-sharing, to wit: â€Å"the company could minimize risk while at the same time gain access to latest technologies and best practices in utilizing the new system to meet the business objectives† (par. 16). Sharing of knowledge, expertise and applications in required technological systems and processes are likewise facilitated through outsourcing. Strain, M. (2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Production. Retrieved from Hearst Communications, Inc.:

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Investing in IT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Investing in IT - Essay Example tened that our current human resource could not operate our kind of business without the backing of a well-established information systems department. Our technical department argued that with most of our business processes and transactions being computer based we had to take care of tasks such as system administrations, computer hardware engineering and networking, management of data and software and database design. The option of external sourcing for professionals to carry out these tasks for us was expensive and not viable in the long term for our business. According to Brynjolfsson (1994, p.6), investing in information technology does pay for a number of reasons and taking that into consideration, we have been able to reduce the workload on our workers while saving on time, grow our business further and make profits, deliver quality, effective and satisfactory service to our clients due to the increased positive feedback responses, improve our overall production in terms of output from our human resource, tracing of our business courses and document storage facilitation, control our transportation and communication related activities, thus cutting down on expenses involved, attract new businesses as a result of our new web augmentations such as blogs, client support structures, merchandise catalogs and newsletters as currently we are facing increased traffic and gain a competitive edge over our customers and increase the number of our customers. As Brynjolfsson reiterated on the importance of information technology (1993, p.66-78), we too have managed to measure the impact information technology has had on our business and so far it’s a positive one. We took a number of factors into consideration: Customers - We had a look at the number of new and return customers and we realized our numbers increased and so we seem to be heading in the right direction in terms of offering solutions to our customer needs. Were we able to describe their problem correctly

Friday, August 23, 2019

Analyse how Public Relations communications theory can help an Essay

Analyse how Public Relations communications theory can help an understanding of the role of new media - Essay Example Toward the end of the century, as business corporations became the dominant institutions of our times, the scope of PR widened and assumed new roles in the commercial realm of product marketing. At the birth of the new millennium, the ascendency of digital technology into the mainstream has once again enhanced and redefined the nature and role of public relations industry. Irrespective of the evolution and change of mediums of communication over the last century, the essence of PR industry has remained more or less the same. In other words, the theoretical framework within which the PR industry operates is applicable across media technologies, both new and traditional. This essay will pertain itself to the analysis of how Public Relations communications theory can help understanding the role of new media. Firstly, new media is a term that is used to refer to a range of communication options that fall along a spectrum. The research team of Diana Owen and Richard Davis have done extensive analytical work on new media. They describe the wide range of new media technologies thus: â€Å"At one end are communications platforms based on old technologies that have taken on new political roles, such as radio and television talk programs, tabloids, and television news magazines. In the middle of the spectrum are mixed or hybrid media that combine elements of traditional media with newer technologies. These include 24-hour cable news programs and the Internet sites of newspapers and magazines. On the far end of the spectrum are new media that have developed as a result of new technology that has been put to novel political uses. Internet applications, such as social networking Web sites like Facebook and MySpace, blogs, video-sharing sites including YouTube, and podcasts fall into this category.† (Owen & Davis, 2008) What we learn from the history of PR theory over the last century is the identification of

A Profile of the Irish Republican Army Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

A Profile of the Irish Republican Army - Essay Example Irish Volunteers used to be a militant nationalist group, which came into being in 1913. IRA claimed to represent the nationalist, Catholic community in Northern Ireland. The group is linked with the political party Sinn Fein. Sinn Fein was formed in 1905 at Ireland. It is the oldest political party, whose name originates from the Irish Gaelic phrase for â€Å"We Ourselves.† Since its foundation, the party has strived for the right of Irish nationals aiming at attaining national self determination (Derkins 2002, p. 20). The Provisional Irish Republican Army was instituted in 1969 as the covert armed division of Sinn Fein. Sinn Fein was a lawful political movement committed to confiscating British army from Northern Ireland and uniting Ireland. The group used violence as the tool of removing British authorities from Ireland. The differences arose within IRA regarding the widespread use of violence. As a result of the Sinn Fein conference in Dublin, in 1969, the IRA was split into two, Provisional and Official divisions (Derkins 2002, p. 22). Although both wings were dedicated to a unified socialist republic of Irish, the Official favored parliamentary strategies and shunned violence after 1972. On the other hand, Provisionals supposed that violence, especially terrorism, was a crucial component of the struggle to remove United Kingdom from Ireland. The group has received assistance from a range of organizations and states. The group has received substantial training and weapons from Libya and Palestine Liberation Organization. As a result of the similarities of IRA operations, there is the probability of links between IRA and Basque militant organization, ETA, and guerrillas FARC in Colombia (Shanahan 2009, p.12). Aims and Ideology As Derkins (2002, p. 32) observes, the main aims of the group were to establish an Irish republic, ending the British rule in Northern Ireland and the reunion of Ireland. This would then lead to establish a democratic socialist republic. The group claimed to be the Catholic republicans fightin g for the rights of the Catholics. The IRA purpose was to employ military to make British ruling in Ireland unsuccessful. This would then assist in attaining the broader goal of an independent republic, which Sinn Fein was pursuing at the political level. Since its formation, the group has functioned independently of political power. However, its membership overlaps with that of Sinn Fein. During the Anglo-Irish War, from 1919 to 1921, the IRA, under the direction of Michael Collins, used guerilla tactics, comprising raids, sabotage and ambushes, to force negotiations with the British government. The war led to an agreement that established two new political units; the Irish Free State and the Northern Ireland. The Irish Free State consisted of 26 counties and was given dominion status inside the British Empire. Northern Ireland, also known as a province of Ulster, comprised of 6 counties, and it remained a fraction of the U.K. Significant elements within IRA rejected this partition and started a civil war, eventually triumphed by the pro-treaty Irish army (Tugwell 1981, p. 13). In the 1970s, the relationship between Britain and Free State remained chilly. The old IRA sustained a low degree of campaign of violence intended at reuniting Ireland. However, in 1960s, its activities had diminished significantly. The developments in Northern Ireland, in the late 1960s, accelerated the diminishing influence of IRA. Civil rights activists engaged in civil defiance in reaction to discrimination against Catholics in Northern Ireland. The activists claimed discrimination in housing, employment, and voting by the dominant Protestant administration and population (Shanahan 2009,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Schools Website Development Template Essay Example for Free

Schools Website Development Template Essay Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people sustain from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. Wikipedia defines a website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, as a set of related web pages containing content such as text, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. A school website is any website built, designed, and maintained by or for a school. Many school websites share certain characteristics, and some educators have developed guidelines to help schools create the best and most useful websites they can. Now a days, website becomes an educational tool, some international schools like Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States), American Herbrew Academy (Greensboro North Carolina) uses website for their school. Locally, like University of the Philippines, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, De La Salle University, Ateneo De Manila University and may more university in the Philippines has their school website. This study focuses in two Municipality; Botolan, Zambales and Iba, Zambales. We notice that some of the schools in Botolan and Iba, have their website but most of them do not especially the elementary schools and public high schools. We come to an idea to develop a web development application wherein a school can create their school website in the easiest way and even if they have no technical background in web programming/web develoing. Background of the Study The study focuses in schools in Botolan and Iba, Zambales. We notice that some of the schools in Botolan and Iba, have their website but most of them do not especially the elementary schools and public high schools. So we come with an idea to develop a website development application for schools, this study aimed to help public schools in Botolan and Iba or even private schools to provide them an application wherein they can create their school website in an easy way. The schools can create a link where in they can post some news articles, school calendar etc. The proposed School’s Website Development Template aims to provide an application for schools in creating a website in an easy way. This application provides a friendly user interface so that the creator of the website can create a website without any technical background in web programming/web developing. Statement of the Problem The researcher wanted to know the effectiveness of the School’s Website Development Template. This research needs to provide answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents with respect to: 2. 1 Name 2. 2 Organization affiliated with 2. 3 Position 2. 4 Numbers of Years in Service 2. What is the level of effectiveness of the School’s the School’s Website Development Template be described in terms of: 3. 5 Reliability 3. 6 Functionality 3. 7 Operability/Usability 3. 8 Performance 3. 9 Maintainability 3. 10 Traceability 3. 11 Conceptual Framework The researcher aimed to develop School’s the School’s Website Development Template for schools. This Software is a website content management software where in a ordinary teacher can make their school website without any background in web developing. Input Profile: -Name -Organization affiliated with -Numbers of years in service Perception towards: * The School’s Website Content Management Software As to: Reliability Functionality Usability Performance Maintainability Traceability Output The Development of The School’s Website Content Management Software Process Survey Questionnaire Interviews Statistical Tools: Likert Scale System Quality Frequency Mean t-Test . Scope and Limitation The School’s the School’s Website Development Template has the capability to: a. The School’s the School’s Website Development Template can provide a template with an application where in they can develop a website for school. b. The website created by the School’s Website Development Template cannot be update online. c. The website created by the School’s Website Development Template can create, remove and update a link for the website. d. The website created by the School’s Website Development Template can create their header and footer for the website. e. The website created by the School’s the School’s Website Development Template has the ability to upload a banner for the school. (jpeg file) f. The website created by the School’s the School’s Website Development Template has the ability to upload icon in every link created. Significance of the Study School’s Website Content Management Software will benefit and provide to the following individual: Current Students. They can access the schools announcements; read some school news articles; can update school’s activities through school calendar. Interested Enrollee/Incoming Students. They can open the website to have an appropriate information about the school. They can view offered courses online so that they can choose a course for them. Student’ s Parents/Guardians. They can also use this website, so that they can view the school activities by reading and articles posted in the website. School teacher. They access the website and download the template at the same time the web development application wherein they can make website for their school in an easy way and even they don’t have any technical background in web developing.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Geography Essays Tourism and Globalisation in Prague

Geography Essays Tourism and Globalisation in Prague The economic impact of tourism and globalisation in Prague. ‘Tourism’ is the all-encompassing term for the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation. The World Tourism Organisation, a United Nations body, defines a tourist as â€Å"someone who travels at least eighty kilometres (fifty miles) from home for the purpose of recreation† (Frangialli, 2001) Individuals and communities around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money are rapidly transmitted intra- and internationally, goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available universally, and international travel and communication is routine. Advancing technology and leaps of progress in engineering have effectively resulted in a minimised world. Depending on political standpoint, this increasingly interconnected global marketplace either represents an enormous achievement for mankind, or a potentially devastating progression into the twenty-first century. Meetings of bodies such as G8, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank often generate large demonstrations, as witnessed in Prague in September, 2000, organised by Prague-based International Campaign against Globalization. Tourism comprises around 5 per cent of the world’s GDP (gross domestic product), and over 200 hundred million people are employed in some form of travel and tourism worldwide (Frangialli, 2001). International tourism is a major export; indeed, in over 150 countries, representing eighty percent of nations worldwide, tourism is one of the five top export earners. In more than sixty countries, tourism is the number one export, and in the Czech Republic tourism accounts for 7 per cent of overall exports and over 40 per cent of service exports (Eyal, 2003). With nationals of 45 countries spending an average of 1 billion euros annually while travelling abroad, including Germans who spend over 50 billion euros and the Dutch who expend almost 14 billion euros, inbound and domestic tourism is increasingly viewed as a reliable and predominant means of national development. Historical background Inhabitants of the Vltava valley are first mentioned in historical documents in 500BC, following the arrival of an unnamed Celtic tribe to the area. One thousand years later, the first Slavonic tribe is referenced as settling in Bohemia. Two of the most spectacular structures have played important roles in the history of Prague: ninth-century Prague Castle, built by Prince Borivoj, and the tenth-century fortress Vysehrad, built on the rock upon the right bank of the river Vltava. Both fortresses became essential for Czech rulers throughout history; Prince Wenceslas, for example, murdered in 935AD and later canonised, valued both strongholds (Eyal, 2003). Prague, capital city of the Czech Republik, is an intricate municipality of historical monuments depicting many artistic styles. The historical centre of Prague is situated on both banks of the river Vltava, and consists of 6 ‘quarters’, once independent cities and merged during the eighteenth century.   Many museums, galleries, and historical buildings still exist in superb condition, and, in 1992, in recognition of this, Prague’s historical centre was added to the World Heritage Sites register of UNESCO (Eyal, 2003). Despite the protracted hegemony of the Austrian empire, which had instigated the decline of the Czech culture and language, the reign of Empress Maria Teresa, during the eighteenth century, allowed the Czech Republik to rediscover its history, language and ethnicity. This flourish of Czech national pride continued until Czech independence in 1918, and was responsible for the construction of many extravagant public buildings and the restoration of old traditions. Prague has continually proven itself as a valuable tourist location, and has attracted many prominent personalities throughout the centuries; among them Mozart, von Beethoven, Queen Elisabeth II, and Pope John Paul II. Economic impact of tourism One of the most significant forces for change in the world today, tourism is now regarded by many as the worlds largest industry. It prompts regular mass migrations of people, processes of development, exploitation of resources, and inevitable repercussions on places, economies, societies and environments (Williams, 1999). Many factors have encouraged the development of both domestic and international forms of tourism, and they exert differing economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts upon destinations. Both as an industry and as a social phenomenon, tourism can be responsible for a renowned speed and scale of change to a location. But at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the challenges of change can seem more daunting than ever before, especially evident in terms of globalisation, the IT revolution, the democratic challenge, and the new consumer (Shlevkov, 2004). Globalisation (as discussed later) represents the intensification of relationships between locations, increasingly shaping the phenomenon in addition to being shaped by it. It denotes the expansion of competition in the tourism industry, as both the reach of transnational capital and the tourists ‘imagined’ world are effectively ‘globalised’. Although the demise of mass tourism is greatly exaggerated, consumers have become increasingly differentiated, and this has severely influenced the tourist map, with few places escaping the increasingly conflicting demands of diverse groups of tourists (Frangialli, 2001). Similarly, the IT revolution is partially responsible for, and facilitates, globalisation, and promises to transform the productivity of tourism capital, challenging the meaning of tourism itself. Nations are now faced with the task of constructing new democratic models which can both regulate and allow commitment to the challenges and opportunities of an increasingly globalised, technology-driven and discriminating world in which the tourist is king. This has led to a growing interest in models of participatory democracy that, in the realm of tourism, has been especially evident in the debate regarding the construction of effective and impartial partnerships in the pursuit of sustainable tourism (Frangialli, 2001). An example of a typical response to these challenges, in 1998, the Royal Geographical Society established the Limited Life Working Party on the Geography of British Tourism. Its remit was to review the current state of British tourism, and to determine a research agenda for the challenges of a changing tourist industry. The work of this group was surrounded five working papers on production, consumption, localities, the environment and public policy (GLTRG, 2000), and while neither exclusive nor comprehensive, the papers provided an organisational framework for addressing both the substantive and methodological challenges facing tourism (Eyal, 2003). First publicly presented at a conference at the University of Exeter in September 1999, the papers resulted in revealing discussions which indicated that the organisational framework discussed possessed a resonance beyond the national arena. It is envisaged by many institutions that these research papers will contribute to the shared eff orts of international scholars to engage with and understand the increasingly complex and rapidly changing world of tourism. Prague is an increasingly popular tourist destination and is already viewed as an abundant location for amateur property developers. The popularity has reaped the Czech Republic rich rewards over the past decade; earnings from tourism have risen steadily since 1989, topping USD 3.7 billion in 1998, equivalent to six percent of the countrys GDP (Shlevkov, 2004). This figure, however, does not begin to reflect the sectors true significance for the Czech economy. Following Skoda cars and beer, tourism is one of the countrys leading exports, accounting for 12.8 percent of all foreign currency earnings. In addition, foreign employers and tourist industries are currently providing jobs for an estimated ten percent of the national labour force. Income from tourism has almost quadrupled over the past six years, more than balancing the outflow of capital that has accompanied the increasing number of Czechs spending their vacations abroad. Following the Velvet Revolution of November and Decemb er 1989, industrial exports plummeted and collapsed. Tourism, however, accommodated the excess, providing new jobs and incomes to the otherwise unemployed masses. Indeed, the positive balance from tourism maintained stable, even profitable, accounts during the first half of the 1990s. Considered one of the most stable and prosperous post-Communist states, the Czech Republik has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-2001 was led by exports to the EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. Tourism has played a critical role in the Czech Republik’s economic stability, and Prague’s magnetism to visitors and investors alike has been crucial. Tourism in the Czech Republic is overpoweringly focused on the Golden City, and an estimated 70 percent of all foreign visitors stay in the capitol, Prague (Frangialli, 2001). But the capitols success in attracting visitors is overwhelming the city. The panorama from Charles Bridge is still breathtakingly beautiful, but these vistas are now suffocated amidst the hordes of tourists. ‘Real life’, the Eastern European culture which attracts so many tourists in the first place, is gradually being edged out by boutiques and pizza franchises. High streets now resemble American society and have lost the historical European charm that made them so appealing. The concentration on Prague is ironic considering the plethora of assets the rest of the country has to offer. A handful of places, such as ÄÅ'esky Krumlov, Karlovy Vary and Kutna Hora, have established themselves in tourist guides as worthy locations to visit outside of Prague, but the average tourist is oblivious to the castles, chateaux, monasteries and churches that speckle the Czech countryside. The hundreds of wine cellars that litter southern Moravia and the picturesque towns of southern Bohemia are virtually ignored. While wealthy Prague is stifled with tourists, the areas away from the capitol could most benefit from hosting visitors. Tourism can be particularly effective for regional development. It is relatively labour-intensive and involves predominantly small to medium-sized enterprises, employing ten to twenty-five employees, that can respond flexibly to market demands. It also generates a wide number of valuable indirect benefits for local communities, including opportunities for recreation and culture, investments in infrastructure and even a strengthened sense of local identity and pride (Shlevkov, 2004). Reaping these benefits has been frustrated so far by the inadequate tourist infrastructure and poor promotion of most areas outside of Prague. With regard to food and accommodation, the problem is not so much one of quantity as the number of beds and eateries away from Prague is generally sufficient. Quality, however, is generally considered, by visitors, as derisory, with most inns, hotels and restaurants simply not meeting basic Western standards. In an increasingly discriminating tourist world, where c ompetition and quality is generally high, non-capitol locations are principally being overlooked by the veritable goldmine that is the tourist world. Until recently, most regions have had to rely more or less on their own initiatives for self-promotion to potential foreign visitors. The majority have fared badly, and the overall result has been cacophony rather than clear and precise communication (Frangialli, 2001). For much of the past decade, tourism development in the Czech Republic has been more or less robotic and self-regulated. Under the mantra of purported market liberalism, the government pursued a hands-off policy between 1992 and 1997, during the five years that former Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus was in power (Eyal, 2003). During this period, the equable and stable increase in tourists and revenues did not inspire any reconsideration of this approach. The first suggestion that a more directed methodology to tourism might be appropriate occurred concurrently as the government realised that its laissez-faire approach was dividing the country into distinct ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. The Ministry for was established in 1996 to address the growing imbalance between affluent areas, like Prague, and the many struggling rural backwaters, such as Ostrava. Subsequently, responsibility for overseeing and developing tourism was transferred from the Ministry for Trade and I ndustry to the new Ministry of Local and Regional Development (Eyal, 2003). Despite this vague appreciation and recognition that tourism could be an instrument for regional development, the governments dedication has remained limited. In contrast to other countries with substantial and respectable tourist industries, which regularly plough percentages of their tourist profits into further development of the sector, investment by the Czech Republik in tourism development over the past decade has been miniscule. In 1997, for example, an estimated 0.6 percent of GDP from tourism was reinvested into the industry, and as a result, the infrastructure of tourism is suffering.   Within the Ministry for Local and Regional Development, for example, only a handful of staff, most in support functions, oversee and coordinate the development of one of the most significant sectors of the Czech economy. This is considered completely insufficient to organise the complex coordination of tourist service providers, carriers, local and regional authorities, state agencies, non -profit factions, and so on, involved in tourism in the country (Shlevkov, 2004). The majority of the departments budget is consumed by the Czech Tourism Authority, whose employees and representatives around the world, numbering approximately 70, are charged with promoting the country, domestically and internationally. However, without adequate funding, the tourist authority is unable to retain its most capable employees, and, to date, has achieved little of merit. The organizations unattractive Internet pages and stuffy brochures seem designed to dissuade potential visitors rather than entice them to the country. The Czech Tourism Authority has recently launched a new initiative specifically designed to promote the different regions around the Czech Republic; despite good intentions, however, this essentially ineffective given the weak promotion for the country as a whole and the highly insufficient economic and personnel support for such an enterprise. The Czech Republik remains practically exotic to most nations, even now shrouded in mystery and chiefly unfamiliar to the average tourist. Marketing regions is, therefore, see n as a waste of precious resources and manpower useless – without a deliberate, organised and powerful holistic promotion of the country as a whole, the reputation of Czech Republik within the world of tourism will remain an eclectic and bizarre mixture of castles and beer. Globalisation Depending upon the individual’s political, or apolitical, viewpoint, ‘globalisation’ is many things to many people. Many see it as a primarily economic phenomenon, involving the increasing interaction, or integration, of national economic systems through the growth in international trade, investment and capital flows. However, it is possible to also point to a rapid increase in cross-border socio-cultural and technological exchange as part of the phenomenon, and to understand the trend in terms broader than purely economical. Sociologist, Anthony Giddens, for example, defines globalisation as a â€Å"decoupling of space and time† (Friedman, 2005), emphasising that with virtually instantaneous communications and impressive technological advances, knowledge and culture can be shared around the world simultaneously. The Era of Globalization is rapidly becoming the preferred term for describing the current period in history. Just as the Depression , the Cold War Era, the Space Age, and the Roaring 20s are used to describe particular periods of history; globalization describes the political, economic, and cultural atmosphere of today (Wolf, 2004).   While some people think of globalisation as primarily a synonym for global business, or economy, it is much more than that. The same forces that allow businesses to operate as if national borders did not exist also allow social activists, labour organizers, journalists, academics, and many others to work on a global stage, and subsequently, have encouraged the development of the tourist industry. With the average citizen of most developed nations able to travel, transatlantic or transpacific, within the duration of a single day, the majority of consumers are visiting and experiencing cultures and ethnicities unattainable to previous generations. In addition, with technological breakthroughs, virtual tourism is on the increase, with more and more potential tourists initially †˜visiting’ a country via their computer, thereby encouraging the actual physical travel itself. Globalisation is a modern term used to describe changes in societies and the world economy that result from dramatically increased international trade and cultural exchange, describing the increase of trade and investing due to the falling of barriers and the interdependence of countries. In specifically economic contexts, it is often understood to refer almost exclusively to the effects of trade; particularly trade liberalisation or free trade (reference). Between 1910 and 1950, a series of political and economic upheavals dramatically reduced the volume and importance of international trade flows. However, globalization trends reversed following the creation and establishment of the Bretton Woods institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (WCSDG, 2004). In the post-World War II environment, nurtured by global economic institutions and rebuilding programs, international trade dramatically expanded. During the 1970s, the effects of this trade became increasingly visible, both in terms of the benefits and the disruptive effects. Although all three aspects are closely interconnected, it is useful to distinguish economic, political and cultural aspects of globalization. In addition, it is important to recognise the key aspect of technological advances, particularly with regard to transportation and communications, which, it is claimed, are responsible for the modern phenomenon of the ‘global village’. Since the word has both technical and political meanings, different groups will have differing histories of the globalisation phenomenon. In general use, within the field of economics and political economy, however, it is a history of increasing trade between nations based on stable institutions that allow firms in different nations to exchange goods with minimal friction. During the inception of globalisation as we understand it today, the term liberalisation came to represent the combination of laissez-faire economic theory with the removal of barriers to the movement of goods. This resulted in the increasing specialisation of nations in exports, and the pressure to end protective tariffs and other barriers to trade. The period of the gold standard and liberalisation of the 19th century is often, therefore, termed The First Era of Globalisation (Wolf, 2004). In essence, it was argued that, with widespread acceptance of liberalisation, nations would trade effectively, and that any temporary disruptions in supply or demand would correct themselves automatically. The institution of the gold standard appeared in phases in major industrialized nations between approximately 1850 and 1880 (Ralston Saul, 2004), though exactly when various nations were truly on the gold standard remains a matter of contentious debate. It is understood that the First Era of Globalisation began to undergo its initial disintegration as a result of the First World War, and subsequently collapsed entirely with the crisis of the gold standard in the late 1920s and early 1930s. However, countries that engaged in that era of globalisation, including the European core, some of the European periphery and various European offshoots in the Americas and Oceania, prospered. Inequality between those states fell, as goods, capital and labour flowed remarkably freely between nations. Globalisation in the years following World War II has been driven by Trade Negotiation Rounds, originally under the auspices of GATT, which led to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on free trade (Wolf, 2004). The Uruguay round led to a treaty to create the World Trade Organization (WTO), in an attempt to effectively mediate trade disputes. Other bilateral trade agreements, including sections of Europes Maastricht Treaty and the North Ameri can Free Trade Agreement have also been signed in pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade (WCSDG, 2004). Despite the surface appearance of remarkable international economic successes as a result of globalisation, not all nations and groups are convinced that globalisation is, indeed, of benefit to their country in particular, or the world stage as a whole. In September, 2000, this was particularly evident in the Czech Republik. Some 20,000 representatives of global capital, predominantly world bankers, economists and financiers, visited Prague to attend the 55th annual summit of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. This prestigious meeting of the world economic elite, the first of its kind in the Central and Eastern Europe, was considered to be of great importance. The delegates intended to meet to propose a scheme of further liberalisation of the world economy by defining new loan priorities and structural adjustment conditions. However, events in Seattle at the WTO meeting, November 1999, indicated that a significant wave of global resistance was rising against th e expanding power of global capital. The IMF/WB summit in Prague provided adequate opportunity for anti-globalisation movements to express their demands for what they perceived as ‘global justice’. The Initiative against Economic Globalization (INPEG) is a loose coalition of various Czech environmental, human rights and autonomist/anarchist groups, organizations and individuals who critically oppose the professed world financial oligarchy, and they had planned a series of campaigns that would culminate in ten days of activities during the IMF delegation in Prague. Claiming that transnational economic corporations and organisations deliberately promote globalisation as a means of maximising private profits, anti-globalisation factions routinely argue that pro-globalisation lobbyists and institutions maliciously restrict the â€Å"power of people to protect the environment, determine their economic destiny, and safeguard their human rights† (Stiglitz, 2002). Furthermore, groups such as INPEG assert that world economic organisations are also directly responsible for Third World debt, and that their debt relief policies continue under the harsh conditions of the IMF Structur al Adjustment Programmes, and thus resulting in an impossible economic situation for developing nations. With particular regard to the Czech Republik, anti-globalisation organisations endeavour to highlight what they considered to be the debilitating effects of globalisation policies on Central and Eastern Europe, demanding an immediate suspension of these practices leading to environmental destruction, growing social inequality and poverty and curtailing of people’s rights (Stiglitz, 2002). However, despite the vocal outrage of such anti-globalisation factions, the world increasingly shares problems and challenges that do not obey nation state borders, most notably pollution of the natural environment, and as such the movement previously depicted as the anti-globalisation movement has metamorphosed into a ‘movement of movements’ for globalization from below; seeking, through experimentation, forms of social organisation that transcend the nation state and representative democracy (Wolf, 2004). So, whereas the original arguments of anti-global critique can be refuted with stories of internationalisation, the emergence of a global movement is indisputable and, therefore, it is possible to speak of a real process towards a global human society. Future projectionsIn 1998, an international cooperative research network was organised, by Volker Bornschier and Christopher Chase-Dunn, for the Fourteenth World Congress of Sociology in Montreal, Canada. This network attempts, theoretically and empirically, to determine the multitude of dimensions relating to globalisation, particularly economic, political, common ecological constraints, cultural values and institutions, and the globalisation of communication (WCSDG, 2004). The first results of this coordinated research were introduced at two sessions at the World Congress of Sociology in Montreal. While the earlier popular discourse on globalisation seemed to suggest, at least implicitly, that globalisation and world economic growth occur in tandem, a more stringent analysis revealed that the various aspects of globalisation became accentuated in the phase of long term sluggish economic growth when compared with long-term economic upswings. It became evident that, despite the remar kable economic growth experienced by several countries during the 1980s and 1990s, overall polarisation in the world did not shrink but actually increased in the latest era of globalisation. Adjectives such as uneven and limits have increasingly appeared in the titles of academic works on globalization, not only reflecting a critical perspective, but also the obvious need for theoretical clarity and empirical research. To assist with the research conducted by Bornschier et al, researchers from three continents were recruited to examine the diverse phenomena of globalisation, and determine the sustainability of developments and the design of new institutions in order to shape a less polarized and more peaceful social world (Ralston Saul, 2004). Considering the future of globalization, conceived as processes promoting international interconnectedness, contemporary globalisation is not entirely unusual when compared to past episodes, such as that experienced between 1850 and 1914. During that period, there was rapid growth in trade, capital flows and migration comparable to, or greater than, today (Hirst and Thompson, 2002). There was also a policy backlash and the widespread adoption of protectionist policies. In addition, contemporary globalisation processes are not, in evidence, undermining national economies; on the contrary, the major states are reinforced in their role of international actors (Friedman, 2005). However, it is widely accepted that both the global economy and national governments will face crucial challenges during this century, the chief of which is climate change. Such changes will tend to foster conflict and thus reinforce the role of the state, but in a context where supremacy at every level will be ha rder to achieve. Evidence about the effects of borders and the limits to trade expansion have been presented by a plethora of research groups, and the overwhelming agreement is that data indicate that we could be close to the limits of feasible globalisation (Ralston Saul, 2004). The World Tourism Organization forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 percent (WTO, 2001) ( By 2020, as forecast, Europe will remain the most popular destination for tourists, but its share will drop from 60 percent in 1995 to 46 percent. It is expected that long-haul will expand slightly faster than intraregional travel, and, by 2020, its share of international tourism will increase from 18 percent in 1995 to 24 percent. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and energy privatisation will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth. Gradual technological improvements are likely to make air-ship hotels possible, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles (WTO, 2001). Widespread popularity of underwater hotels is predict ed, and structures such as the Hydropolis, purported to open in Dubai in 2006, will be built to meet growing demand. On the surface of the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and floating cities, such as the Freedom Ship (construction planned for 2005). Some futurists expect that movable hotel pods will be created that could be temporarily erected anywhere on the planet, where building a permanent resort would be unacceptable politically, economically or environmentally (WTO, 2001). As computer technologies advance sufficiently, virtual reality tourism is likely to become extremely popular and affordable, with significant popularity expended around 2010-2015. Conclusion Reality may now be catching up with the Czech Republic. Prague hoteliers and merchants are reportedly increasingly disturbed by the shortfalls in the tourist industry, and even government officials are concerned by the drop in visitors over recent years. The number of foreign visitors rose rapidly in the first seven years after the Velvet Revolution, from 26.9 million in 1989 to 109.4 million in 1996. However, subsequently, the numbers have tapered, declining to 107.9 million in 1997, and 102.8 million in the following year (the last full year for which statistics are available) (Shlevkov, 2004). In contrast to the decline in tourists in 1997, predominantly due to the massive flooding that submerged large parts of the country, the recent downturn may signal a greater trend. The countrys poor tourism infrastructure, bad service and inept promotion are starting to severely impact on the region’s GDP, and, to a lesser extent, national pride and their value to European progress. The afterglow of the Velvet Revolution lasted longer abroad than it did in the Czech lands. Tourists flocked to the Czech Republic for its fabled capitol city and a taste of Eastern Europe, conveniently located along the Berlin-Vienna train line and within easy reach of Germany and Italy, and not for good food or great service. Ten years later, Prague and the Czech Republic have lost much of their initial aura and are no longer completely uncharted territory. Poor beds, bad board and worse manners now do make a difference for the increasingly discriminating tourist-consumer looking at Prague versus other destinations. The Czechs may not be considered as friendly and outgoing as the Irish, and the land-locked republik lacks a coast to attract beach-seeking tourists, nevertheless, with a location almost exactly in the middle of Europe, a landscape overflowing with cultural attractions and a fascinating history, and an economy considered still very affordable to most Western tourists, the Czech Republic should be enjoying an enviable tourist reputation. Irelands remarkable success stands as an example for what it is possible to achieve. The Czech authorities are beginning to realise the vast potential tourism has to offer. Tourism has been written into virtually every regional development plan in the country, and the Ministry for Local and Regional Development has drafted a national plan for developing tourism that draws attention to some basic problems and makes a number of proposals for reform (Frangialli, 2001). The establishment of a tourism development fund, passage of a more favourable tax legi slation

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Analysis of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)

Analysis of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) The Geography of European Integration: Economy, Society and Institutions Kourdoumpalou Panagiota Which of the following two sentences is more likely to be correct in your opinion? Present at least two arguments to support your opinion. The establishment of a common monetary union in the EU was a successful step towards deeper European integration. The idea of a common monetary union in EU didn’t take under consideration all the economic aspects resulting in its failure a few years later. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) represents a major step in the integration of EU economies. It involves the coordination of economic and fiscal policies, a common monetary policy, and a common currency, the euro. The 28 EU Member States take part in the economic union, but some countries have taken integration further and adopted the euro. The decision to form an Economic and Monetary Union was taken by the European Council in Maastricht in December 1991, and was later enshrined in the Treaty on European Union. The Economic and Monetary Union helps the EU in its process of economic integration. Economic integration brings the benefits of greater size, internal efficiency and robustness to the EU economy as a whole and to the economies of the individual Member States. This offers opportunities for economic stability, higher growth and more employment. On January, 1999, 11 of the 115 European Union (EU) countries formed the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), adopting the euro as their common currency. Since then, in the Eurozone, the European Central Bank carries out a common monetary policy and, to a high degree, bond markets are fully integrated ( European Commission). The creation of the Eurozone was preceded by a gradual regulatory harmonization among European stock markets and the ending of various restrictions on nonresidents, and also by an effort among EU countries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria for joining the Eurozone. The effort to satisfy the Maastricht criteria also led to betterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ balanced fiscal budgets, which may have led to a â€Å"real convergence† of European economies, that is, an increased synchronization in business cycles across the European economies (Julian Alworth, Giampaolo Arachi, 2008). The introduction of the euro had many advantages. It improved transparency, it standardized the pricing in financial markets, and reduced investors transaction and information costs. Finally, the introduction of a single currency eliminated the currency risk within the EU and reduced the overall exchange rate exposure of European stocks. This factor, together with the nominal and real convergence, should have led to more homogeneous valuations of equities in EMU countries (Gikas A. Hardouvelis, Dimitrios Malliaropulosa, Richard Priestleyd, 2007). One way to evaluate if European stock markets became more integrated during the 1990s is to examine the evolution of the relative influence of EU. When stock markets are partially integrated, both global and local risk factors are priced. There is a possibility of estimating a conditional asset pricing model with a timeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ varying degree of integration, which measures the importance of EU, wide market and currency risks which are relative to countryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ specific risk (Gikas A. Hardouvelis, Dimitrios Malliaropulosa, Richard Priestleyd, 2007). Each Eurozone country has its own timeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ varying degree of stock market integration. The degree of integration is bounded between zero and unity and conditioned on a broad set of monetary, currency, and business cycle variables. These variables estimate the gradual nominal and real convergence of the European economies during the preà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ monetary union period. Among the included variables, the most prominent one is each countrys forward interest rate differential with Germany which was widely used by market analysts as an indicator of the probability that an EU country would eventually manage to join the Eurozone. In the second half of the 1990s, the degree of integration gradually increased to the point where individual Eurozone country stock markets appear to be fully integrated into the EU market. There have been two main factors that driven the increase in the level of integration: the evolution of the probability of joining the single currency and the evolu tion of inflation differentials (Gikas A. Hardouvelis, Dimitrios Malliaropulosa, Richard Priestleyd, 2007). Moreover, economic integration resulted in businessà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ cycle convergence. Crossà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ country return correlations and business cycles are related. Monetary and fiscal policy coordination may have led to increased synchronization of business cycles among EMU member countries, which could have led to increased correlation of expected corporate earnings and more homogeneous estimates of European equities (Gikas A. Hardouvelis, Dimitrios Malliaropulosa, Richard Priestleyd, 2007). In the 1990s there is a process of increased integration of European stock markets to the prospects of the formation of EMU and the adoption of the euro as the single currency. During the 1990s, the degree of integration of each countrys stock market with the EU market was negatively related to both its forward interest rate differential with Germany and its inflation differential with the best three performing countries. Also, the inflation differential was a major indicator of whether a country with a high inflation had the ability to achieve nominal convergence and satisfy a major criterion for admittance into the Eurozone. The process of integration was not easy, but in the second half of the 1990s, stock markets converged toward full integration. In other words, their expected returns became increasingly determined by EUà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ wide market risk and less by local risk (Gikas A. Hardouvelis, Dimitrios Malliaropulosa, Richard Priestleyd, 2007) Concluding, supporting evidence on the hypothesis that the prospect of EMU was the cause behind the observed increase in stock market integration among Eurozone countries comes from two main sources. First, when we observe the experience in the United Kingdom, an EU country that chose not to join the Eurozone, is clearly different than the rest of the European stock markets. The UK market showed no signs of increased integration with the EU stock market. Second, the integration in Europe appears to be a Eurozoneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ specific phenomenon, which does not rely on possible simultaneous worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ market integration. So, now it can be said that the establishment of a common monetary union in the EU was a successful step towards the European integration. It is obvious that the process of integration was not easy, but there was a convergence of the stock markets towards full integration. In other words, their expected returns became increasingly determined by EUà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬  wide market risk and less by local risk. References European Commission, Economic and Monetary Union. [online] Available at: Gikas A. Hardouvelis, Dimitrios Malliaropulosa, Richard Priestleyd, (2007). The impact of EMU on the equity cost of capital. Journal of International Money and Finance Julian Alworth, Giampaolo Arachi, (2008). Taxation policy in EMU, Economic Papers 310 1

Monday, August 19, 2019

Global Warming Essays -- Greenhouse Effect Climate Change

Global Warming The glass windows of a greenhouse lets in sunlight. The sunlight warms up objects inside the greenhouse. These objects then give off heat. The glass of the greenhouse, however, does not let out the heat. If the greenhouse lacks ventilation, all the heat stays locked inside and the temperature rises. This greenhouse effect also causes the inside of an automobile to become hot if its windows remain closed on a sunny day. The Earth and its atmosphere are like a giant greenhouse. Like the glass windows of a greenhouse, the atmosphere is nearly transparent to shortwave and visible solar radiation. Part of the energy absorbed by the Earth is radiated to the atmosphere as long-wave infrared radiation. Because it contains carbon dioxide and water vapor, which absorb much of the long-wave radiation before partially reradiating it back to the surface, the atmosphere is not completely transparent to this long-wave radiation. This causes the Earth and its atmosphere to warm up. Variations in the amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the air can have a significant effect on how much heat is retained by the atmosphere. The total amount of carbon dioxide present in the Earth's atmosphere remained nearly constant until the 20th century, when the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, gasoline, and natural gas began to release large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The combustion of fossil fuels brought about an ever-increasing ri...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Sense and Sensibility :: essays research papers

Sense and Sensibility   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jane Austen was born on December 16, 1775, in Seventon Parsonage in Hampshire England. She was the seventh child of eight children. She was well educated by her father, who was a clergyman. When she was young she started writing novels for her family. It took her fifteen years to find a publisher, but when she did, her words became very widely known. To this day she is considered to be the first great woman novelist. Austen’s novels are mostly set in her own upper middle class English Country environment. They are based upon a young woman heroine who always ends up happily married. Austen shows how people struggle with issues of monetary value and the unhappiness it brings. She also shows how people struggle with their feelings and emotions for each other. In her novels, all the characters learn a lesson. The book Sense and Sensibility was published in 1811, and it is based on the observation of the people of her time. Because her novels always express the patterns of behavior of the people of her time, people find then informative as well as entertaining.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sense and Sensibility is about the Dashwoods, who are struggling to overcome the death of their father and husband. When he died, they were left virtually penniless, and because the law says that everything is passed down to the son of the decease the family is left with nothing and no place to live. The Dashwoods move in to a small cottage in Barton. But before they leave the oldest daughter falls in love with Edward Farris. Edward is part of England’s upper class, and his sister does not approve of his relationship with Elinor Farris, so she sends him away to London. Shortly after moving to Barton, another on of the Dashwood girls, Marianne, meets Mr. Willouby after she falls down while running in the rain. Willouby is quite handsome and soon he and Marianne become quite fond of each other. Willouby’s family does not like the idea of him marrying a poor girl, and they threaten to strip him of his wealth and inheritance if he marries her. At about t he same time, Elinor finds out that Edward has been secretly engaged to someone else for five years.

A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L’Engle Essay -- essays research paper

A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L’Engle Madeleine L’Engle uses a creative mixture of three different story-book motifs for building the story line in her book A Wrinkle in Time. From beginning to end Meg, Charles Wallace, and Calvin go through adventure after adventure bursting with animated fairy-tale characteristics, a model preteen coming-of-age theme, and a subtle Christian suggestion. The three are intertwined naturally, and work well within the science-fiction twist of this very believable fantasy tale. The main character Meg Murry is the perfect innocent child turned heroine. As in the typical coming-of-age theme, the beginning of the story presents 13 year old Meg as young, and terribly dependent on others. Constantly wallowing in self-pity, Meg enters the first chapter emotionally immature with a dismal self-centered â€Å"why-must-everything-happen-to-me† attitude [P.7]. Although her five year old younger brother Charles Wallace is â€Å"rumored to be not quite bright† [P.9], he is actually extremely advanced for his age and Meg’s main caretaker. â€Å"How did Charles Wallace always know about her? How could he always†¦probe (and understand) with frightening accuracy† [P.8]? The two are remarkably close, and whenever life becomes too much for Meg, Charles Wallace reaches out to comfort her. All three—Meg, Charles Wallace, and their new found friend, 14 year old Calvin O’keefe—fit the average misunderstood characteristics found in many fairy-tale and preteen stories. While both Calvin and Charles Wallace are misunderstood by most, Charles Wallace at least has the support of a loving home, with dysfunctional preoccupied parents, Calvin, on the contrary, has no one to understand and appreciate him. â€Å"The funny part of it† he says, â€Å"(is that) I love them all and they don’t give a hoot about me†¦I care, (but) nobody else does† [P.40]. All three children, each with his own special individual qualities, strive to get along in their everyday world. The boys don’t seem to care much what others think, only Meg, with her many temperamental imperfections, flounders from day to day. Mixed in with this is a hint of an orphaned-child theme. Although none of the children are actual orphans, the thought is implied first through Mr. Murry’s absents, and Meg’s constant wish of â€Å"if only father (were here)† [P.4]; and then with Calvin’s horribly neglectful family—he is, in essen... to her caretaker, while she challenges It in an attempt to save her brother. In the grand finale, love concurs the incredibly evil force. Love—the one thing Meg possesses that It doesn’t†¦Ã¢â‚¬ I love you Charles Wallace† she cries, â€Å"My baby brother who always takes care of me. Come back to me†¦come away from It, come back, come home. I love you† [P.208] The message is written all through the text. God is stronger than Satan. God is love, and love is stronger than It. Once again â€Å"winning is everything† and the story finds a way of â€Å"making everything work out†[class lecture]. Charles Wallace is free, the Murry children have their father back, and Mrs. Murry has her husband back. Calvin has new friends and family with the Murrys. Meg, who has undergone her right of passage, finds friendship and self-confidence, is sure to return to daily life with a different more assertive and positive attitude. After the dark spiritual fight against It, Meg returns with a spiritual healing, and the absence of anger and resentment. Like The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe the group returns at the exact moment they had departed on the quest, ready to take up where they left off—one big happy family.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

A+P vs Araby

Araby and A&P are both short stories, written by famous authors. Although they were written in different times, as well as in different countries, they have many similarities. These similarities can be found both in their contexts and their settings. Both stories are about young men, leading dull lives, and who go through a major change by the end of the story, while trying to get away from their lives. In both stories this change takes place while trying to please a female who triggers something inside them, causing them to act.Araby and A&P are stories of unsuccessful attempts to escape from ordinary lives, only in different ways. What catches the readers’ attention in both stories first, are the settings. In both stories the protagonists describe the neighborhoods and the daily life in the cities that they live in, in detail. While they make these descriptions, telling the reader about the neighborhood through their eyes, they also give information about their mindscapes, a nd we understand what they think of the places they live in. The boy in Araby uses many negative words while describing the setting. ‘‘†¦ ninhabited†¦ blind end†¦ detached†¦ imperturbable†¦ dark†¦ muddy ( pg 427)’’ That is how we empathize with him: being able to picture the dullness and the gloominess of that city in Ireland, and also its detachedness from other places. Similarly, Sammy in A&P describes the town he lives in by referring to everyone around him as sheep, vividly describing the distinction between the beach and his town, which causes us to again picture a small town with many mostly older people who lead uneventful lives, and a young boy who has lived there and worked in the same shop all his life. ‘†¦ all three of them went up to the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle. ’’(pg 865) In this way we know that both characters are not happy with the lives they are leading. They have no ambitions and nothing to hold on to. Everything they talk about sounds too simple. With nothing to hold on to, both characters are in search of something that will give them the courage to do something different, something that will spice up their lives.For the boy in Araby, the escape from his boring everyday life comes with his love for a girl. She is the only light in his dark life, his only source for joy. He devotes himself to this girl so much that she becomes a god-like figure. ‘‘The light from the lamp caught the white curve on her neck, lit up her hair that rested there and, falling, lit up the hand upon the railing. (pg 429)’’ The same thing happens to Sammy when the three girls in bathing suits come into the store that he is working at. The leading girl of the group, who he calls ‘Queeny’, is different from everyone he knows in the town.He is fascinated by her. ‘†¦ just her, this clean bare plane of the top of her chest down from the shoulder bones like a dented sheet of metal tilted in the light. I mean, it was more than pretty. (pg 865)’’ The girl is the long-awaited lights in Sammy’s life. Since they are fascinated by these girls so much, the boys can’t stand their being sad. The girl in Araby is sad because she is not able to go to a festival that she wants to go to, where as ‘Queenie’ is sad because she has been scolded in front of everyone by the manager of the market.The boys, finally having found something to fight for. They feel themselves as their saviors. The boy in Araby feels like it is his duty and responsibility to make the girl happy. ‘‘I imagined that I bore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. (pg 428)’’ In the same way, Sammy in A&P quits his job, thinking he is now the girl’s hero, who stood up against his boss to save he r from the embarassment. ‘‘So I say ‘I quit’ to Lengel quick enough for them to hear, hoping they’ll stop and watch me, their unsuspected hero. pg 868)’’ It is not long before both of them realize that it was not actually worth it, and that what they had imagined weren’t actually true. The boy realizes that he is not capable of doing what he was trying to do. He is too young to be buying a gift with the little money he has, from a big bazaar, and for a girl much older that he is. Sammy realizes that in reality he can not do anything else other than to be a cashier at a supermarket. They both understand that they were not actually who they thought they were.The boy in Araby was never going to be the lover of the girl he loved, and Sammy was never the girls’ hero. After these realizations they both find themselves in an emptiness, having suddenly lost the mission of their lives. The boy is angry with himself (I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity; and my eyes burned with anguish and anger(pg 431)) and Sammy doesn’t know what to do next. ‘‘My stomach kind of fell as I felt how hard the world was going to be to me hereafter. (pg 869)’’ But they both know it is going to be

Friday, August 16, 2019

The Lost Tools of Learning

Response to The Lost Tools of Learning Sayers believed the main problem with modern education is that children aren’t being taught to think. She believed that public education does not teach students how to understand relationships between subjects, nor does the public system teach students how to make sense of the information they learned. She was frustrated that adults cannot properly debate a question, write a lucid article in the newspaper or think for themselves when it comes to evaluating propaganda or advertising. Sayers was disheartened that students are learning everything except the art of learning itself.Her argument against our current education system reminds me of the saying, â€Å"Give a man a fish and he eats for a day. Teach a man to fish and he eats for life. † Instead of just teaching subjects we should be teaching thinking, arguing and how to express conclusions. If we teach students with a different approach which focuses on the art of how to learn something new and how to make connections among the subjects we learn, then we will be educated on a deeper level – not just having knowledge, but understanding and wisdom as well.The Trivium is Sayers answer to our problems with the current education system. The Trivium consist of three parts: Grammar, Dialectic and Rhetoric. These are not subjects studied individually, but methods of studying subjects. Grammar is the first part which involves learning the language and structure of a subject. Specifically, Sayers believed the Grammar stage should include observation and memorization of key concepts in Latin, Literature, History, Geography, Science and Math.For example, the grammar of History should include dates, events, anecdotes and personalities. Dialectic, or Logic is the next stage where a student learns how to use this language through analysis of the subjects. In this stage a student takes the knowledge from the grammar stage and begins to build a deeper understanding by reasoning and analyzing what he’s learned. Rhetoric is the third stage which involves being able to critique the subject – to speak and write intelligently and defend opinions and ideas about a certain topic or subject.In this stage students will put the things memorized from the Grammar stage into new context and the concepts they analyzed in the Dialectic stage will be synthesized with new insight and perspective. A student in the Rhetoric stage will be able to articulate his thoughts and opinions of a concept. Through the Trivium students are able to learn independently, analyze logically, think critically and communicate clearly. Each stage is a building block towards a deeper level of understanding. Integration of subjects is a key difference between classical education and instruction from the public education system.In the public education system, students are taught subjects in isolation. As they get older they are encouraged to specialize in one subject. B y learning through the stages of the Trivium, students are able to understand that subjects aren’t isolated, but that everything is interrelated. As they progress through the stages of the Trivium, they learn how to make connections among subjects and put things they have learned into context together. Integration of subjects also makes new learning easier. Students who have learned how to learn can easily master a new subject.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Actual Story Gay Edgar Allen Poe

Although he is seen as a respect De mason, and possibly even feared, Fortunate rather great need for my touch and my Tate notion was ultimately his weakness. I turned and said to him: My Dear Fortunate, is there something that troubles you? ‘ â€Å"You,† he said. ‘What precisely are we doing?! † â€Å"We are merely relishing each other's company. Wish to not impose of this sill once that fell upon us, tester 2 â€Å"My Friend;l mean, what is this relationship, this immoral act we have been pr acting for the last few years?Fortunate questioned forcefully with a longing desire of need on his beet red face and tense shoulders. I gathered my wits and gingerly walked over to Fortunate s eat. Grabbed his rather clammy hands and grazed my lips across his knuckles while staring pro foundry into his mound wondering eyes that reflected the wild dark roots thrusting against the summer's forest. I could see the large vein on his petite forehead throb as the thoughts of our re allocation flourished in his mind.He was not mentally prepared to overcome such a scandal, and n either was l, but it was he who held the guilt of betraying the marriage he built with Lady Fortune tat close to heart. â€Å"Fortunate, there is no need to cause yourself any agony. There is no need to I k for meaning in this amour. This affair doesn't reduce your StatUS as a respected a ND honorable mason now, gather yourself up and make your journey to yourself. This involve moment between us is ours alone Carr Fortunate broke his gaze and looked down at his settled hands.He sat there, unmoving. For a moment it seemed as though he was in war with his conflicting thought s, unsure of what there was to come. He finally rose his head and looked at me with somewhat Of contentment in his eyes. â€Å"l see where we stand, Mentors. Will now leave. My dear Mary will be cusps socio if I were to delay much longer. Until next time, MIM Carr As Fortunate left the chamber, I let the sedu ctive facade fall from my face. Oh r amatory expressed from one side. Oh how despised that man!How my blood boiled at the thought of 3 him returning to his â€Å"beloved† Mary! She should be mine! She was mine. For loved her still do and always will till I am long dead and rotten and the worms have consume De my flesh. Reminisce on the time I met the radiant Mary Perpetrators. We were mere chill drew at the time, not even 16 years of age, and her face was filled with youthful, elegant b tatty. When she was near, there was no one but us, my Mary Bella and l, as though we were al one in a kingdom by IL Mar Mediterranean.She was my queen, and I was her king, and we had 10 Veda with a love hat was the envy of all the seraphim of Deaden, a love that was abstruse. Unfortunately, I didn't possess the financial level that Fortunate had the privy age to sustain. Fortunate was part of the wealthiest banking family in Italy, and l, well l, I was part of the strongest mercenary contracti ng family. As much as the Mentors family pro ducted manors and provinces from regional princes throughout the Italian countryside, the Fort NATO family was far more distinguished than the Mentors due to their financial assistance.I fell t queasy that such a wealthy and blessed family held the low standards of committing fraud where ere their petty foot stepped. For this reason, my Mary was sold to that accursed trollop Fortunate Although no one could rightfully and obviously accuse the Fortunate Family of such treachery, it was common knowledge across manors and villages that the Fort mutton paid and received monetary favors to secure funds for princes and their regional warrior Eng, as well as bishops and their divine propaganda; all for security and communion.I peers anally was never involved in these schemes, but time and time again, I subtly chuckled at the m softness of others when attending the cathedral, dining hall, or local winery. Specially cackled when Princes Achilles de frauded Princes Bonaventure, of course with the help of the Fortune tats. Prince Bonaventure was a gentleman to a certain degree, but then again he was juju nee. In truth, any man 4 with a sliver of cunning would have taken advantage of Bonaventure finance al impediment.Oh the insignificance, the ignorance, and the idolatry of princes! The shame cast on our class! For it is the humble peasant that outclasses the local prince in character, but who y is character necessary when wealth, warring, and wills craft the only noticeable characters as suddenly startled, and almost spit my Amaretto in disgust once realizing Prince De Boring ostentatiously slithered in the winery. Of course, the rest of the gentle men and mercenaries jolted with great delight to see a prominent prince, a skilled war ROR, and charismatic countryman.De Boring owned numerous estates, and every wine made in HTH s vulnerably was technically his. He would fence and go horseback riding two hours everyday, t here lavis h parties every other week, and always found Ways to make financial transactions even as his mistresses purloined amounts of wealth in coinage or capital. As not in the least afraid of him, but any sign of dissent or digressiveness of De Barrio's attention would ignite a brawl between the dandies at the winery and Prince De Boring and l. As much as my combat ski ASS were polished, would be outnumbered thirty to one. Loud die as a martyr to my waning f Emily, but not to those princes I have served and honored and neither to those mercenaries t hat I contracted and compensated. As I was reminiscing those thoughts, Prince De Boring slammed his flask of A amaretto on my table, nearly shattering the flask itself. â€Å"l see! You are the pitiful Mentors, lull ? † De Boring chuckled. â€Å"l see! You are the parasitic De Boring, time quietly retorted as I sipped my flask of Amaretto. 5 â€Å"He he, you have remotely sharpened your diplomacy. I just came by to invite et you to the Mason's festivity tonight.We will have copious amounts of wine and liquor r, appetizer, entrees, and desserts, and fine courtesans. Promise with what little heart I h eve that it will not be a snare to bring your demise, or worse, publicize your ‘fencing affair, even if I consider you such scum under the trampling of the snake of your pathetic family crest. † â€Å"You wouldn't dare. And you know your insignificant crest is simply a fusillade mouse hyena pretending to be in a lion's skin. My pathetic snake as you should call him, would deliver the final blow, even if you were to believe that you would have the last laugh. Slowly felt the tension in the room increase as myriad conversations ceased, flasks ceased to be lifted up to sip, and blades slowly began to whisk away from thee r sheaths. â€Å"Oh, I almost forgot. Fortunate treating us. You should entrust Fortunate wit h some contracts, or should I say en thrust With that final mockery I instantaneously, with the flick of my wrist, withdrew y sword from my sheath faster than Poseidon would've waved his trident to whish a TTS unman to strand Ulysses. I held De Boring by his chin with the sharp edge of my sword. I whish e red, â€Å"l strongly suggest you leave.NO one here, especially l, requires your service. Not even your family crest belongs on your property, if it still belongs to you. † â€Å"You surely jest. Such alliterated fascia you AR† might have lost consciousness for a second as a dark red fluid, dripped on m y blade and squirted on my attire. I then realized that sliced the neck of Prince De Borg a. Immediately, everyone in the winery from the dandies to the princes to the mercenaries t o the peasants drew their blades, and some even drew their firearms. I had no chance to speak as a barrage Of lead, 6 clouds of gunpowder, and shrieks of agony pierced throughout the winery.I r vapidly dropped to the floorboards of the winery under my table, with my bloodied blade in one hand and my halfpenny flask of Amaretto in another, directly staring at the disillusioned eye sees of Prince De Boring as a pool of blood engulfed his rotten being. After a few minutes of vicious brawling, the winery was returned to a placid SST et by my mercenaries present there. Fortunately, I survived the bloody turmoil in the w inner. No one dared to accuse me, Mentors, of my felony, for they knew they would be lunged b y my mercenaries into a bog.Of course, Fortunate had to bribe a few dandies and princes, but then again, that was his specialty. I was to see Fortunate tonight at the Mason's festivity at Prince De Barrio's manor, or shall I say former manor. For an abstruse reason, I was bloodstream as I began to ruminate a possible course of events at the festivity. Then again, no one would d know what fencing .NET between Fortunate and I, for I killed Prince De Boring, and was proud of such an act as my honor was preserved. De Boring never took my crest seriously, but Oh what delight! What classical irony! What classical ignorance!Memo me immune laciest Memo†¦ Me†¦ immune†¦ laciest†¦ I delivered the final blow, and De Boring, such insignificant, insipid, idolatrous, ignominious, imbecile, did not even attempt t o cough a last laugh, or shall I say as a toast to De Boring, cough, a last inning laugh. I cleaned my blade upon his cloak with relish and kicked his head as I left to go to Fortunate Mason party The night of debauchery had drawn on for what seemed like eons. Quickly gar ewe tired of Fortunate and his Mason brethren. Their drunken antics became more and m ore glutinous and disgusting, their voices becoming more clamorous and derisive.I feigned into caution to keep 7 the reality of my torture muted. Within a few hours, the air of the hall had beck mom thick with the vices of the Masons. Joined Fortunate, continuing my charade of drunkenness s in order to not arouse suspicion of my sobriety. Fortunate was speaking loudly, h is voice slur ring and bubbling out of his wine soaked mouth. He could hardly speak for himself, rather the eel as think like a gentlemen around others. The conversation was turned towards the â€Å"conquests† of the men. Fortunate spoke of many women who he had affair with in his youth.I felt my sizzling blood rush through my head and into my palms as I thought of Mary being one of those unfortunate women Not being able to stand it anymore, I grabbed his arm and said, â€Å"Think of Mar y, my friend. † â€Å"Mary is not here, you Old chum. † Fortunate raised his glass and chuckled, â€Å"Eel tutus reminisce upon the great times I had before chew assaulting came along, yes? Hoped my bothered presence would position his mind straight, I hoped that he would shut his bloody awful mouth and reflect upon the fact that he had the only HTH Eng that gave me air as I drowned in this judgmental society.Mary was the only thing that kept m e together, she held me like ceme nt and allowed me to become something more than just the son Of two hardworking servants. How could Fortunate resemble her to the ordinary women of our to wan, it was uncanny to hear such brainless words. He continued to baffle about his great conquest, and gloated with pride in his eyes as he named a few ladies who mistakenly took his mingled words for affection. Co old not stand in that room full of men who felt as if the only significant thing in that moment was to speak of the 8 women who had the misfortune of meeting them. Shed myself out of the basement arranging my hands along the mature wooden rail that kept me from falling. Looked above to the clear sky, searched for something to gain my attention a ND possess my body from going back to the smoky room and committing a terrible mists eke. In the mere distance I heard someone delicately recite my name from their lips. â€Å"Metronomes? Fortunate placed the almost empty glass of wine on the FL or and strolled towards my direc tion. â€Å"Did something go wrong, chum?