Sunday, April 7, 2019
Amazon Database Essay Example for Free
amazon Database Essay amazon.com is developing a schema to gather and keep massive amounts of intimate tuition about its millions of shoppers, including their religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity and income. The infobase, which would combine training expose voluntarily by customers with facts gleaned from public databases, conceivably would give Amazon a large or more than dilate profile of its customers than any other retailer. The Seattle-based company, with 59 million active customers, tell it has no nimble plan to implement such a program. Its ability to do so emerged in a detail indubitable use with the U. S.Patent Trademark Office, disclosed Thursday. A privacy expert verbalize customers should be wary about Amazon having the capability to gather such a large amount of expand information. She said the data could end up in the hands of the myriad retailers that do business with the company, or with government officials or hackers. Amazon never ceases to amaze me, said Lillie Coney, associate director of the Electronic seclusion Information Center in Washington, D.C. If they create this database, it allow for be used for other purposes. They are very creating slightlything worth a great deal of value that will help their company. The patent of invention disclosure comes at a epoch of heightened awareness over online security and a rash of recent security breaches.AOL lately published a list of more than 650,000 user queries that revealed names, addresses and Social Security numbers, and the company this week apologized and aloof the data, but its unknown how many copies of the sensitive information were made. Amazons pending patent, which would bar competitors from replicating the companys process for gathering information, exposit how it could compile data from customers to create a profile of products that a person might want to buy. such(prenominal) a database would include the gender, date of birth, interests, occupatio n, education, income level, residence, race and ethnicity of customers for Amazons gift clustering program. Customers already willingly disclose some personal information on the site to create a wish list of desired products, for example. The larger potential database would go beyond that. Even if a customer does non know demographic information or interests of a possible recipient, the system may be able to access such information from a user profile for the recipient, from past prepareing patterns of the recipient, or from publicly accessible databases, the patent application said.Company spokeswoman Patty Smith said Amazon.com has no current plans to implement such a system. non every company uses a patent it has in its name, but it may have a patent in portfolio, Smith said. Who knows 10 years ingest the road or five years use up the road? It might be good to implement. We want to protect our intellectual property. Smith said the entry released Thursday is an addendum to a patent Amazon sought in October 2000 and received in February of this year. She said much of what was in the original patent was also disclosed Thursday, but she didnt have details on what was new. Smith said that six years ago Amazon was trying to figure out shipway to make it easier for customers to find information on the companys wish list feature for gifts.Amazon is always circumspect how it uses customer data so the customer experience will be as good as it move be, she said. The system described in the patent would give shoppers, with the click of a mouse, additional detailed information at the discretion of the gift recipient. Amazon already groups or clusters gifts, such as live items or back-to-school goods, and then suggests them to buyers based on generic factors such as price, the relationship between the giver and receiver or the recipients age or gender. The patent disclosure also comes at a time when Amazon, origin every(prenominal)y an online bookseller in 19 95, is moving into new ventures to boost profits.The companys stock took a huge hit tolerate month after Amazon reported disappointing second-quarter earnings and company executives said there would be continual heavy spending on technology. Amazon recently started its own toy and food stores. The patent application, filed Dec. 9, 2005, by Amazon inventor Amit Agarwal but made public Thursday, could take years to be approved, gibe to Brigid Quinn, a Patent Trademark Office spokeswoman.Quinn said theres a backlog of more than 700,000 patent applications, and the commission reviews about 300,000 a year. Its in the early stages. Its not even on an examiners desk yet, Quinn said. But they could use it without it cosmos patented. The patent only prevents others from using it. Greg Linden, a former technology team leader at Amazon, said it sounds to him like Amazon is just protecting its wish list feature. Linden, founder of Findory.com, an online news site, also warned not to read t oo much into a patent application because lawyers throw in everything they can compute of to keep competitors from copying an idea.Read more http//www.seattlepi.com/business/article/Amazon-database-would-put-shoppers-intimate-1211419.phpixzz24rlGoBichttp//aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/amazon-oracle/AWS Case Study Amazon.com visionary DB Backup to Amazon S3Amazon.com is the worlds largest online retailer. In 2011, Amazon.com switched from put down backup to using Amazon simple-minded Storage Service (Amazon S3) for bread and butter up the majority of its Oracle databases. This strategy reduces complexity and chief city expenditures, provides faster backup and restore performance, eliminates mag tapingline capacity planning for backup and archive, and frees up administrative staff for higher(prenominal) value trading operations. They were able to replace their backup tape recording nucleotide with spoil-based Amazon S3 storage, eliminate backup software, and exp erient a 12X performance improvement, reducing restore time from around 15 hours to 2.5 hours in select scenarios.The crinkle ChallengesAs Amazon.com grows larger, the sizes of their Oracle databases continue to grow, and so does the sheer number of databases they maintain. This has caused growing offends related to backing up legacy Oracle databases to tape and led to the consideration of alternate strategies including the use of Cloud run of Amazon Web Services (AWS), a subsidiary of Amazon.com. Some of the business challenges Amazon.com faced included consumption and capacity planning is complex, and time and capital expense budget are at a premium. probatory capital expenditures were take over the years for tape computer hardware, data center space for this hardware, and enterprise licensing fees for tape software. During that time, managing tape infrastructure required highly skilled staff to spend time with setup, certification and engineer archive planning instead of o n higher value projects.And at the end of every fiscal year, projecting hereafter capacity requirements required time consuming audits, forecasting, and budgeting. The constitute of backup software required to support multiple tape devices sneaks up on you. Tape robots provide basic read/spell capability, but in order to fully utilize them, you must invest in proprietary tape backup software. For Amazon.com, the cost of the software had been high, and added substantively to overall backup costs. The cost of this software was an ongoing budgeting pain point, but one that was difficult to address as long as backups assumeed to be create verbally to tape devices.Maintaining reliable backups and being fast and efficient when retrieving data requires a lot of time and causal agent with tape. When data needs to be durably stored on tape, multiple copies are required. When everything is working correctly, and there is minimal parameter for tape resources, the tape robots and backup software can soft find the required data. However, if there is a hardware failure, human intervention is necessary to restore from tape. Contention for tape drives resulting from multiple users tape requests slows down restore processes even more. This adds to the witnessy time objective (RTO) and makes achieving it more challenging compared to backing up to Cloud storage.Advantages with Amazon Web ServicesAmazon.com initiated the evaluation of Amazon S3 for economic and performance improvements related to data backup. As part of that evaluation, they considered security, availability, and performance aspects of Amazon S3 backups. Amazon.com also executed a cost-benefit analysis to ensure that a migration to Amazon S3 would be financially worth musical composition. That cost benefit analysis included the following elements Performance advantage and cost competitiveness. It was important that the overall costs of the backups did not increase. At the same time, Amazon.com required f aster backup and recovery performance. The time and effort required for backup and for recovery operations proved to be a significant improvement over tape, with restoring from Amazon S3 running from two to twelve times faster than a comparable restore from tape.Amazon.com required any new backup medium to provide improve performance while maintaining or reducing overall costs. Backing up to on-premises disk based storage would have improved performance, but missed on cost competitiveness. Amazon S3 Cloud based storage met both criteria. greater durability and availability. Amazon S3 is designed to provide 99.999999999% durability and 99.99% availability of objects over a given year.Amazon.com compared these figures with those sight from their tape infrastructure, and determined that Amazon S3 offered significant improvement. Less operational friction. Amazon.com DBAs had to evaluate whether Amazon S3 backups would be viable for their database backups. They determined that using Amazon S3 for backups was easy to implement because it worked seamlessly with Oracle RMAN. Strong data security. Amazon.com found that AWS met all of their requirements for physical security, security accreditations, and security processes, protecting data in flight, data at rest, and utilizing suitable encryption standards.The Business BenefitsWith the migration to Amazon S3 well along the way to completion, Amazon.com has realized several benefits, including Elimination of complex and long tape capacity planning. Amazon.com is growing larger and more dynamic each year, both organically and as a result of acquisitions. AWS has enabled Amazon.com to keep pace with this rapid expansion, and to do so seamlessly. Historically, Amazon.com business groups have had to save annual backup plans, quantifying the amount of tape storage that they plan to use for the year and the frequency with which they will use the tape resources. These plans are then used to charge each organization for their tape usage, spread head the cost among many teams. With Amazon S3, teams simply pay for what they use, and are billed for their usage as they go. in that respect are virtually no upper limits as to how much data can be stored in Amazon S3, and so there are no worries about running out of resources.For teams adopting Amazon S3 backups, the need for formal planning has been all but eliminated. Reduced capital expenditures. Amazon.com no longer needs to obtain tape robots, tape drives, tape inventory, data center space, networking gear, enterprise backup software, or predict future tape consumption. This eliminates the burden of budgeting for capital equipment well in advance as well as the capital expense. Immediate availability of data for restoring no need to locate or retrieve physical tapes. Whenever a DBA needs to restore data from tape, they face delays. The tape backup software needs to read the tape catalog to find the correct files to restore, locate the correct tap e, mount the tape, and read the data from it. In roughly all cases the data is spread across multiple tapes, resulting in further delays.This, combined with contention for tape drives resulting from multiple users tape requests, slows the process down even more. This is especially severe during critical events such as a data center outage, when many databases must be restored simultaneously and as soon as possible. None of these problems occur with Amazon S3. Data restores can begin immediately, with no waiting or tape queuing and that means the database can be recovered much faster. Backing up a database to Amazon S3 can be two to twelve times faster than with tape drives. As one example, in a benchmark test a DBA was able to restore 3.8 terabytes in 2.5 hours over gigabit Ethernet. This amounts to 25 gigabytes per minute, or 422MB per second. In addition, since Amazon.com uses RMAN data compression, the effective restore rate was 3.37 gigabytes per second.This 2.5 hours compares to, conservatively, 10-15 hours that would be required to restore from tape. Easy implementation of Oracle RMAN backups to Amazon S3. The DBAs found it easy to start backing up their databases to Amazon S3. Directing Oracle RMAN backups to Amazon S3 requires only a configuration of the Oracle Secure Backup Cloud (SBC) module. The effort required to piece the Oracle SBC module amounted to an hour or less per database. After this one-time setup, the database backups were transparently redirected to Amazon S3. Durable data storage provided by Amazon S3, which is designed for 11 nines durability. On occasion, Amazon.com has experienced hardware failures with tape infrastructure tapes that break, tape drives that fail, and robotic components that fail. Sometimes this happens when a DBA is trying to restore a database, and dramatically increases the mean time to recover (MTTR). With the durability and availability of Amazon S3, these issues are no longer a concern.Freeing up precious human resources. With tape infrastructure, Amazon.com had to seek out engineers who were experienced with very large tape backup installations a specialized, vendor-specific skill set that is difficult to find. They also needed to hire data center technicians and dedicate them to problem-solving and troubleshooting hardware issues replacing drives, shuffling tapes around, shipping and tracking tapes, and so on. Amazon S3 allowed them to free up these specialists from day-to-day operations so that they can work on more valuable, business-critical engineering tasks.Elimination of physical tape manoeuvre to off-site location. Any company that has been storing Oracle backup data offsite should take a hard seek at the costs involved in transporting, securing and storing their tapes offsite these costs can be reduced or possibly eliminated by storing the data in Amazon S3. As the worlds largest online retailer, Amazon.com continuously innovates in order to provide improved customer experience and offer products at the lowest possible prices. One such innovation has been to replace tape with Amazon S3 storage for database backups. This innovation is one that can be easily replicated by other organizations that back up their Oracle databases to tape.